Presentation on theme: "Measuring the Impact of Full-day Kindergarten: Experimental Evidence Chloe Hutchinson Gibbs University of Chicago & Learning Point Associates March 4,"— Presentation transcript:
Measuring the Impact of Full-day Kindergarten: Experimental Evidence Chloe Hutchinson Gibbs University of Chicago & Learning Point Associates March 4, 2010
Outline Motivation & Literature Review Study Background Data & Empirical Approach Results Next Steps
Research Question Do students in full-day kindergarten (FDK) programs outperform their half-day kindergarten peers as measured by literacy skills at the end of the kindergarten year?
Literature Review Observational studies using ECLS-K –Research generally finds positive effects of FDK participation at the end of the kindergarten year (Cannon et al, 2006; Lee et al, 2006; DiCicca, 2007; Votruba-Drzal et al, 2008). –While some studies find marginally significant positive effects of FDK in the spring of first grade (Cannon et al, 2006) or persistent effects for certain student subgroups in first grade (DiCicca, 2007), any FDK effects fade by third grade (Cannon et al, 2006; Votruba-Drzal et al, 2008). Small studies in specific settings –Smaller-scale evaluations similarly report early advantages for FDK participants (Cryan, 1992; Elicker & Mathur, 1997) while those employing the most rigorous designs generally find modest, inconsistent short-term effects (Holmes & McConnell, 1990; Karweit, 1992).
Study Background In 2007, the Indiana General Assembly passed legislation (Indiana Public Law ) to provide funding to increase access to and availability of FDK, allowing “school corporations and charter schools to provide full-day kindergarten programs to improve the academic and social development of children in kindergarten.” Beginning in the school year, school districts and charter schools became eligible to receive the FDK grant from the state, which is allocated based on kindergarten enrollment in the district/school in the current school year.
Study Background (cont’d) The definition of full-day kindergarten, as specified in the Indiana Department of Education’s grant application: Full-day kindergarten is a kindergarten program that… Consists of a minimum of five (5) hours of instructional time (instructional time does not include lunch or recess), Is conducted each school day of the week (not alternate days) following the school corporation calendar, Follows the Indiana State Board of Education Kindergarten Curriculum Rules, Has a curriculum consistent with the Indiana Academic Standards, Remains within the school corporation’s Prime Time guidelines.
Study Approach Identify student assignment mechanisms employed in districts –Statewide questionnaire for school districts –Follow-up phone screening with districts –Verification/documentation of assignment process Generate study sample from districts using lotteries to assign students to FDK and HDK
Source: National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data & Indiana Department of Education, Accountability System for Academic Progress Study Districts – Lotteries Locale Type % Free or Reduced- Price Lunch % Minority Elementary Schools Elementary Enrollment K Enrollment K Teachers (FTE) Lottery Districts District 1 City, Small District 2 City, Midsize District 3 Suburb, Large District 4 Suburb, Large District 5 Rural, Distant
Data District-provided, with assistance from the Indiana Department of Education: –Student-level demographic and literacy assessment data (pre- and post-test) –Documentation of lottery implementation Unique student identifiers which allow for matching to state administrative and assessment data
Variables Treatment indicator: FDK assignment and participation Controls: pre-test literacy score, student age at pre-test, race/ethnicity, gender, and poverty status (free or reduced-price lunch eligibility) Outcome: standardized scores from literacy assessments District fixed effects
Study Sample FDK studentsHDK students District District District District District Total680433
Pre-test Literacy Scores
Caveats about Assignment Crossover: 99.73% of the sample complied with assignment Late-comers: 132 HDK students and 77 FDK students enrolled after the lotteries Attrition: 61 HDK students (14.09%) and 60 FDK students (8.82%) are not observed at post- test
Literacy Pre- and Post-tests
Empirical Approach: OLS : literacy skills assessment outcome for child i in district k : assignment indicator (1=FDK and 0=HDK) : a vector of child-level characteristics : pre-test score for child i : district fixed effects (1)
Empirical Approach: IV (2) (3) IV estimates provide the impact of treatment on the treated. Because of little crossover, IV estimates mirror OLS estimates.
Heterogeneous Treatment Effects Explore interactions between treatment and pre- test, age, gender, poverty status, and race Examine presence of differential treatment effects by district
Findings Assignment to FDK results in improved early literacy skills for certain subgroups of students, including those who are nonwhite, eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, and in the lowest quartile of the pre-test score distribution. In addition, the impact of FDK varies considerably by district.
Next Steps Addressing differential attrition Exploring the impact of FDK on outcomes in the primary grades Comparing impact estimates from non- experimental approaches with experimental evidence
Acknowledgments Carrie (Mathers) Scholz and Julie Kochanek, Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest Kerwin Charles, Jens Ludwig, Steve Raudenbush, and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, University of Chicago Indiana State Department of Education, Board of Education, Governor’s Education Roundtable, and participating school districts Committee on Education and U.S. Department of Education IES training grant funding and the Center for Human Potential and Public Policy conference travel funding
Comments or Suggestions: Chloe Hutchinson Gibbs