Presentation on theme: "US History – Unit #5 Post-War United States 1945-1970s."— Presentation transcript:
US History – Unit #5 Post-War United States 1945-1970s
Key Learning Students will use competing historical accounts to trace the development of postwar conformity and change in the United States
Unit Essential Question How are contemporary issues of conformity and change problems for postwar America? Does this indicate a patter of continuity or change? Why have historians come to conflicting conclusions regarding postwar American values?
Unit Concepts 1.1950s America 2.Beginning of Cold War a. Korean War 3.Communism at Home & Space Race 4.Kennedy and Johnson Years 1960-68 5.Vietnam War & Counter Culture 6.Civil Rights Movement 7.Nixon, Ford & Carter Years 1968-1980
Unit 5 Pre-Test EASY WAY OR HARD WAY? NO TALKING
Homework #1 Levittown The Rise of the Sunbelt The Interstate Highway System
1950s America Lesson Essential Question #1 How did American conform to original social standards following WWII? What economic and technological changes were made during the 1950s? Vocabulary Per capita incomeFranchises Baby boom GI Bill
Opener What do you consider the “proper” roles for men and women in today’s society? How might your views of gender-based roles differ from those of your parents or grand-parents? Be prepared to share with class
Quiz 1.How expensive were the houses William Levitt was selling in Long Island, NY? 2.What Henry Ford method did Levitt use to build houses rapidly? 3 & 4. Give 2 examples of how Levitt cut prices for the young couples. 5.What area grew rapidly during the post- war era?
Quiz 6.What parts of the country were people moving to? 7.What area of the country was the poorest at the end WWII? 8.Where did the federal government spend $35 billion during WWII? 9.What US President authorized the building of the Interstate Highway System? 10.In 1919, how long did it take someone to travel from Washington DC to San Francisco? Today?
Peacetime Economy GI Bill of Rights Economic expansion –GNP (1945 - $212 billion; 1960 $540 billion) –Per capita income - $1,526 to $2,788 –Result = US richest nation in world New Jobs –Industry –Fast Food/Franchises
1950s Leaders 1948 Election – –Truman vs Thomas Dewey –Truman’s Fair Deal Raised minimum wage Expanded social security 1952 Election –Adlai Stevenson vs Dwight Eisenhower “I Like Ike” –Eisenhower – “take that straight road down the middle” 1956 won re-election; 1959 – AL and HA
Life in the 1950s Growing Families –Improvement in health and medical care Suburbs –Growing 40x faster than cities –Mark Levitt – Long Island, NY: 17,000 homes Levittown Cars & Highways –Interstate Highway Chevrolet Bel Air
Technology Electric Power –Atomic Power; Nuclear Power Plant Computer Television –1946 – 17,000 existed –1950 – 7 million sold/yr –1955 – 4-5 hrs/day Howdy Doody; Mickey Mouse Club Dick Clark’s American Bandstand I Love Lucy
Conformity Middle Class –Youth – “Silent Generation” Movies –1955 – Rebel Without a Cause
Roles of Men & Women Men – –School, Job, Support family –Made decisions (political, economic, social) Women – –Supporting role to husband –Workplace WWII 1950 22% 1960 31%
Class Work The Suburban Explosion: Read pages 752-753, answer questions on separate piece of paper 1950s Video Boston: From City to Suburb
Homework #2 The Cold War The Truman Doctrine The Containment Policy The Chinese Revolution The Soviet Atomic Bomb
Exit Ticket Why was America able to fall back into stereotypical “roles” following the end of WWII? What role did the economy and technology play in this?
Beginning of the Cold War Lesson Essential Question #2 Why do historians differ on the causes to the Cold War? What impact do differing political and economic ideologies have on the future of the world following WWII? How will two superpowers almost cause WWIII? Vocabulary Containment Truman Doctrine NATOWarsaw Pact Marshall PlanDomino Theory Satellite NationBerlin Airlift Iron Curtain
Opener What do you think a “cold war” is? Why was this war considered “cold” and not “hot”? What made it a war? Be prepared to share with class
Quiz 1.What did Winston Churchill belief was closer to grasp than at any time in history? 2.What were two major conflicts that will occur during the Cold War? 3.In 1946, What did Churchill say had “descended across” Europe? 4.How much money did President Truman ask Congress for in aid to Greece and Turkey? 5.The Truman Doctrine became known as the ___.
Quiz 6.What part of the world did George Marshall send aid to? 7.What German city was blockaded? 8.What group did the US help to form? Soviet Union? 9.Who won the Chinese Civil War? 10.What weapon did the Soviet Union use which frightened America?
US and SU troops hoping for friendship between two countries Problem - 2 countries economic and political systems would not fit; built up resentment between the two
Soviet UnionUnited States Communist Economy state controlled all property and economic activity Capitalistic Economy private citizens control property and economic activity
Politics Soviet UnionUnited States Communist Party ousted czar by force and established a totalitarian government Democracy - people elected a President and Congress
Soviet Expansion End of WWII – SU occupied E. Europe –Stalin: hold “free elections” 1946 – Churchill “…an iron curtain has fallen across continent” 1948 – E. Europe under communist control
US Reaction Truman – Communism cannot spread Truman Doctrine – asks Congress for $400 million in military & economic aid for Greece and Turkey –Policy of CONTAINMENT US Pledge – help nations threatened by communist expansion
Aid for Europe Marshall Plan – 1948-1952: $12.5 billion to Europe –WHY?
Berlin Following WWII – Germany divided into 4 zones (US, GB, FR and SU) –Unify or not to unify?
Soviet Blockade June 1948 – US, GB & FR announce reunification of W. Germany Stalin – closed all roads, railways and rivers to Berlin –Problem – 2.1 million starve in 3 weeks Truman’s dilemma –Did not want Berlin to fall into SU hands –Sending troops = war
Berlin Airlift 327 days, 277 flights, 2.3 million tons of food, clothing, medicine 5,000 tons per day – taking off/landing every 3 minutes
Opposing Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949) –US, Canada & 10 Euroean Nations Warsaw Pact (1955) Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Class Work – Complete Europe Post WWII Map
Why did the US have an interest in Asia? Stop spread of Communism commitment to the Philippines, Japan and China
1937 - China controlled by Japan Communists and Nationalists put problems aside joined forces to stop Japanese
Communist Leader - Mao Zedong Nationalist - Chiang Kai-shek
Mao Zedong - Communist leader 1945 - occupied Northern China Chiang Kai-shek - Ruler of China Fought war against Chinese communists 1945 - occupied Southern China
Civil War End of WWII – war broke out –US support Nationalists Truman sent $2 billion in aid 1949 – Kai-Shek & Nationalists fled to Taiwan –Mao establishes People’s Republic of China
Class Work “Uncle Joe” Map – Germany Divided The Struggle for China Joining NATO Why Join NATO? Why Join Warsaw Pact?
Why join NATO? Warsaw? With a partner, select a side (NATO or Warsaw) and country Put together a pros/cons list for joining NATO/Warsaw Write a brief presentation for why you decided to join NATO/Warsaw
Exit Ticket Looking into the magic crystal ball, what events can you foresee will occur next? Explain why with specific examples.
Korean War Lesson Essential Question #3 Why was America involved in a conflict on the other side of the world? Why was America not able to go back into isolation? Vocabulary 38 th parallel Domino theory Stalemate
Opener Why will America apply its policy of containment to more areas than just Europe? Why will America only threaten to use the Atomic bomb to stop the spread of communism? Be prepared to share with class
Quiz 1.When did the North Koreans invade South Korea? 2.When did the conflict end? 3.Why was there tension on the Korean peninsula? 4.What line of latitude (parallel) divided Korea? 5.What was the original mandate given to the US by the United Nations?
Quiz 6. Why did the US cross the border into North Korea? 7 & 8. What Asian country joined the conflict? How many troops did they send in mid-October? 9. What did President Truman do to General MacArthur? 10. What was one lesson learned from the Korean War?
1910 to August 1945 - Japan ruled Korea WWII ended – Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to the Soviets South of 38th parallel surrendered to the US
38 th Parallel Not intended as permanent boundary –artificially divided country’s resources 2 separate countries grew 1948 - Republic of Korea (S. Korea) was established in zone occupied by US Communists - formed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) June 25, 1950 – N Korea attacks S Korea
United Nations Security Council adopts US Resolution to stop N Korean invasion –Soviet Union boycotted meeting (refusal to allow China into UN) –16 nations, sent 520,000 troops to assist S. Korea (90% were US) S. Korea - 590,000 troops led by Gen Douglas MacArthur
Stalemate SU - suggested cease-fire on June 23, 1951 July 1951 - truce talks began –cease fire line at existing battle line –establishment of demilitarized zone between opposing sides July 1953 - armistice signed Results of War –N. Korea had been pushed back, and communism been contained without world war and without use of atomic weapons US threat to use them helped break deadlock –Korea still 2 nations
Homework #4 The Death of Stalin and the Cold War The Cold War in Developing Countries The Military Industrial Complex
Exit Ticket Why do you think that most Americans never acknowledged this conflict? What impact did American culture in the 1950s have on this point of view?
Domino Theory Lesson Essential Question #4 How did the spread of communism cause fear to the United States? How did the US react? Vocabulary Domino Theory 17 th parallel
Opener What does the “Domino theory” have to do with containing communism in the 1950s? Be prepared to share with class
Quiz 1.When did Joseph Stalin die? 2.What was the immediate effect of the death of Stalin? 3.What did Nikita Khrushchev do a year after Stalin’s death? 4.What did Khrushchev call for in early 1956? 5.What did East German authorities build to separate East and West Berlin?
Quiz 6. What did the CIA help to overthrow the elected government in 1954? 7. Why did the CIA do this? 8.What balance did President Eisenhower believe was needed? 9.What was the first satellite launched into orbit? 10.Who was elected in 1960?
Early Vietnam Vietnam – controlled by France –WWII – controlled by Japan Ho Chi Minh – led communist party –1945 established Viet Minh –Fought France US involvement: Gave $ to France 1954 - Vietnam defeated France Geneva – 17 th parallel
Middle East WHY? – –OIL!!!! Iran 1948 – Formation of Israel
Latin America Honduras and Nicaragua 1954 – Guatemala –CIA overthrew government 1959 – Fidel Castro
Homework #5 Tail-Gunner Joe The 2 nd Red Scare Alger Hiss Anti-Communism during the early 1950s The Domestic Communism The Rosenberg Case Margaret Chase Smith McCarthy Condemned Paranoid Style Space Race
Exit Ticket Did the “domino theory” exist or was it a figment of the US paranoia? Why was the US responsible for stopping it? Were they correct in doing so?
Communism at Home Lesson Essential Question #5 Why was America so scared of communism? How did this “feeling” cause tension in the US? Vocabulary – Brinkmanship; ICBM HUACJoseph McCarthy Alger HissSputnikU-2 Julius and Ethel RosenbergH-Bomb
Opener List three elements that define loyalty. Does criticism of one’s country constitute disloyalty? Be prepared to share with class
Quiz 1.Where did Joseph McCarthy charge was a Communist spy ring in 1954? 2.What former high sate department official was accused of passing classified documents to the Soviet Union? 3.What husband and wife were arrested on charges of atomic espionage? 4.What secret project did Soviet intelligence agents penetrate during WWII?
Quiz 5.What happened to Ethel and Julius Rosenberg after they were convicted? 6.Who was the first woman elected to both houses of Congress? 7.What happened to McCarthy in 1954? 8.What film reflected America’s paranoid ideas? 9.How long did it take for Sputnik to orbit the Earth? 10.What country 1 st landed on the moon?
Fear of Communist Influence What were the causes for Americans to be concerned about security in the US? –Soviets dominated Eastern Europe –China was Communist –WWII 80,000 Americans in US Communist party 1945 – 2 State Department workers and 1 naval intelligence officer stole classified documents and gave to communist paper (atomic bomb info)
Communism at Home Loyalty Review Board –Investigate government employees 1947-1951 investigated 3.2 million employees House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) –1947 - Investigated movie industry Hollywood Ten –10 “unfriendly” witnesses –Blacklisted VIDEO
Spy Cases Alger Hiss –Accused of spying for SU –Convicted of perjury –Innocence proven in 1990s Rosenberg’s –Sept 23, 1949 – SU A-bomb –Accused of giving SU secrets –Plead 5 th –Guilty – sentenced to death 1953 – electrocuted VIDEO
McCarthy’s “Witch Hunts” Why? – Re-election Tactics – fear of communism –Claimed 57, 81 and 205 communists –Democratic party – “20 yrs of treason” –McCarthyism Downfall –1964 – accusations against US Army VIDEO
Hydrogen Bomb 1949 – Soviets explode A-Bomb Hydrogen Bomb –Bombs fused –Force of 1million tons of TNT (67x power of bomb dropped on Hiroshima) –Jan 31, 1950 – Truman authorized work on H- bomb –Nov 1, 1952 – US exploded bomb August 1953 – Soviets detonated H-bomb VIDEO
Brinkmanship Keep the peace by promising to use all its force including nuclear weapons against aggressor nations –More nuclear weapons and planes to carry them –Beefed up air force and nuclear weapons –Cut back on army and navy
Cold War in the Skies Sputnik launches the Space Race –Oct 4 1957 – Soviets use ICBM to launch satellite into orbit –US inferiority “Flopnik” & “Stayputnik” Jan 31, 1958 – US launches first satellite U-2 Spy Plane –Used to spy on Soviets –May 1, 1960 – Francis Gary Powers shot down –Eisenhower denounced by Khrushchev VIDEO