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An Ecological Model for Discriminating for Discriminating Emotional Behavior Disorder from Cultural Difference Lisa Bardon, Ph.D.Daria Paul Dona, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "An Ecological Model for Discriminating for Discriminating Emotional Behavior Disorder from Cultural Difference Lisa Bardon, Ph.D.Daria Paul Dona, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Ecological Model for Discriminating for Discriminating Emotional Behavior Disorder from Cultural Difference Lisa Bardon, Ph.D.Daria Paul Dona, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Stevens PointMinnesota State University-Mankato

2 U of M/ MDE Project Four suburban and urban pilot school sites Four suburban and urban pilot school sites Funded by Federal Flow-through dollars to the state Funded by Federal Flow-through dollars to the state Oversight: Special Education Policy Section Oversight: Special Education Policy Section Charge: Address the overrepresentation of African-American students in Minnesota’s special education classrooms Charge: Address the overrepresentation of African-American students in Minnesota’s special education classrooms

3 Our Goal: 1) To design an effective model for training regular education teachers to use strategies and tools that would reduce referral and placement of African-American students in special education. 2) To examine the feasibility of implementing our model and evaluate the outcomes for both students and teachers

4 Project To translate findings from the previous study into professional development modules for in-service teachers To translate findings from the previous study into professional development modules for in-service teachers

5 Project Currently conducting “facilitator” workshops for selected suburban/urban school teams based on overrepresentation data and AYP status Currently conducting “facilitator” workshops for selected suburban/urban school teams based on overrepresentation data and AYP status Facilitator teams will use modules to train staff in their schools and districts. Facilitator teams will use modules to train staff in their schools and districts.

6 Where We Started…

7 Review of research on variables associated with African-American student learning; Review of research on variables associated with African-American student learning; Immersion (participant-observers) in school prereferral procedures and activities; Immersion (participant-observers) in school prereferral procedures and activities; Gathering of prereferral, referral and placement data schoolwide; Gathering of prereferral, referral and placement data schoolwide; School staff surveys; School staff surveys; Synthesis of relevant theory and research for development of our model Synthesis of relevant theory and research for development of our model

8 Changing Prereferral Practice Essential Components The Prereferral Process Team Composition Meeting Time Sociocultural Awareness Data Collection Tools & Skills Collegial Partnering for Teachers Culturally Relevant Instruction Culturally Sensitive Classroom Management Time for collaboration Strengthening Parent- Teacher/ School-Community Networks Identify Parent Needs Identify Teacher Needs Time for collaboration Information/Skills

9 AREAS FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1.Cultural self-awareness 2.Cross-Cultural Competency 3.Use of Continuous Progress-Monitoring methods for instructional planning 4.Identification and use of culturally relevant curriculum and curriculum materials

10 The Professional Development Model: Underlying Assumptions Systems Variables The Ecological model of human development emphasizes the role of context and is culturally-sensitive The Ecological model of human development emphasizes the role of context and is culturally-sensitive

11 ECOLOGICAL THEORY Each child is an inseparable part of a small social system; Each child is an inseparable part of a small social system; “Disturbance” viewed as a lack of balance in the system “Disturbance” viewed as a lack of balance in the system Requires evaluation of environmental factors and the degree of “match” between child and environment Requires evaluation of environmental factors and the degree of “match” between child and environment Goal of intervention: Make the “system” work Goal of intervention: Make the “system” work

12 Building Level Considerations “Openness” and “Trust” factors at the building-level are critical facilitators or impediments to learning and adopting new skills “Openness” and “Trust” factors at the building-level are critical facilitators or impediments to learning and adopting new skills Prereferral policies and practices at the building-level are critical facilitators or impediments to learning and adopting new skills Prereferral policies and practices at the building-level are critical facilitators or impediments to learning and adopting new skills

13 TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS Personal & general self- efficacy are important variables Personal & general self- efficacy are important variables Cultural self-awareness must be addressed Cultural self-awareness must be addressed Teachers need collegial partners for support and logistics Teachers need collegial partners for support and logistics Methods should promote distributed and situated learning Scaffolding promotes culturally-sensitive hypothesis formation

14 ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS Functional Behavioral Assessment is an ecological, data-driven approach Functional Behavioral Assessment is an ecological, data-driven approach Current FBA methods lack culturally- sensitive prompts & tools Current FBA methods lack culturally- sensitive prompts & tools

15 INTERVENTION CONSIDERATIONS Interventions should be evidence-based at national and school-based level Interventions should be evidence-based at national and school-based level Interventions should be tiered: Interventions should be tiered: Universal Universal Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Tertiary Tertiary

16

17 PHASE 1 Procedures and Outcomes PHASE 1 Procedures and Outcomes

18 Demographics Urban Pilot Urban Pilot Urban Urban 450 Students 450 Students K-6 K-6 24% African American 24% African American 42% Caucasion 42% Caucasion Suburban Pilot (typical) ‘First Ring’ suburb 620 Students K-5 40% African American 52% Caucasion

19 Assessment of Climate and Attitude Factors

20 “Students of different backgrounds are proportionately represented in special education, gifted education, and other school programs.” --School Environment Survey, #12

21 “Class size is such that teachers can individualize instruction or try alternative methods of instruction for students experiencing problems.” --School Environment Survey, #10

22 “Teachers in this school are experienced and equitable in working with students of diverse cultural backgrounds.” School Environment Survey, Question #7

23 Ethnicity of the Students Referred to the Prereferral Team

24 Gender of African American Students Referred to the Prereferral Team

25 Percentage of African American Students Assessed for Special Education Eligibility

26 Conclusions Based on Qualitative and Quantitative Data Sources African-American students referred significantly more often than other groups (most often for academic (reading) and/or behavioral problems African-American students referred significantly more often than other groups (most often for academic (reading) and/or behavioral problems

27 Factors Influencing Referral Teacher Variables Attitudes and Beliefs Attitudes and Beliefs Lack of communication with parents Lack of communication with parents Sense of efficacy for teaching culturally different students Sense of efficacy for teaching culturally different students Lack of cultural self-awareness and knowledge of other cultures Lack of cultural self-awareness and knowledge of other cultures Perceived lack of sufficient training in teaching strategies for diverse students Perceived lack of sufficient training in teaching strategies for diverse students

28 Training Steps Training Steps Through the use of a collegial partnering model: Evaluation of general and personal self-efficacy Evaluation of general and personal self-efficacy Self-analysis of personal cultural background, values, attitudes, beliefs and related behaviors Self-analysis of personal cultural background, values, attitudes, beliefs and related behaviors Learning about African-American culture as it relates to learning and behavior Learning about African-American culture as it relates to learning and behavior

29 Steps (cont.) FBA training (Observation, ABC, ABA, etc) FBA training (Observation, ABC, ABA, etc) Conducting FBA’s with technical and/or collegial support Conducting FBA’s with technical and/or collegial support Scaffolding and modeling of culturally-sensitive data analysis and hypothesis formation using case studies Scaffolding and modeling of culturally-sensitive data analysis and hypothesis formation using case studies Scaffolding and modeling of culturally- responsive intervention design and implementation Scaffolding and modeling of culturally- responsive intervention design and implementation

30 REFLECTION TOOLS Teacher Efficacy Scale (Gibson & Dembo, 1984) Teacher Efficacy Scale (Gibson & Dembo, 1984) Diversity Awareness Reflection Questions (adapted from Nelson, 1998) Diversity Awareness Reflection Questions (adapted from Nelson, 1998) Diversity Self-Assessment (Montgomery, 2001) Diversity Self-Assessment (Montgomery, 2001) Practitioner Diversity Awareness Scale (MNCFL, 1999) Practitioner Diversity Awareness Scale (MNCFL, 1999) School Environment Survey (MNCFL, 1999) School Environment Survey (MNCFL, 1999)

31 ASSESSMENT TRAINING TOOLS Ecological Assessment Model (Ysseldyke & Christenson (1993) FAAB (2002) Ecological Assessment Model (Ysseldyke & Christenson (1993) FAAB (2002) Functional Behavioral Assessment (multiple sources) Functional Behavioral Assessment (multiple sources) Culturally Responsive Interpretation of Behavioral Data: Guiding Questions (Dona & Bardon) Culturally Responsive Interpretation of Behavioral Data: Guiding Questions (Dona & Bardon)

32 ASSESSMENT TRAINING TOOLS (cont.) Sociocultural Checklist (adapted from MNCFL, 1999) Sociocultural Checklist (adapted from MNCFL, 1999) Case Studies of African-American students Case Studies of African-American students

33 INTERVENTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION TOOLS Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2000) Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2000) Guiding Questions for Increasing Instructional- Cultural Match… (Dona & Bardon) Guiding Questions for Increasing Instructional- Cultural Match… (Dona & Bardon) Dimensions of African-American Culture (Boykin, 1983) Dimensions of African-American Culture (Boykin, 1983)

34 INTERVENTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION TOOLS (cont.) Key Elements of Success for Teaching African- American Urban Students (Foster, 1997; Ladson-Billings, 2001) Key Elements of Success for Teaching African- American Urban Students (Foster, 1997; Ladson-Billings, 2001) Culturally-Sensitive Instructional Material & Methods (Montgomery, 2001; Gay, 2000; Diamond & Moore, 1995; Krater, Zeni & Cason, 1994) Culturally-Sensitive Instructional Material & Methods (Montgomery, 2001; Gay, 2000; Diamond & Moore, 1995; Krater, Zeni & Cason, 1994)

35 INTERVENTION DESIGN AND EVALUATION TOOLS (cont.) Developing Classroom Themes (adapted from Gay, 1988) Developing Classroom Themes (adapted from Gay, 1988) Assessment Benchmarks for Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Gay, 2000) Assessment Benchmarks for Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Gay, 2000)

36 DESIRED OUTCOMES Increases (or stability) in referrals of African- American students to the prereferral team with expectation of obtaining assistance with culturally-sensitive, data-based intervention design, implementation and evaluation Increases (or stability) in referrals of African- American students to the prereferral team with expectation of obtaining assistance with culturally-sensitive, data-based intervention design, implementation and evaluation

37 DESIRED OUTCOMES Inappropriate referrals of African-American students for special education evaluation would diminish Inappropriate referrals of African-American students for special education evaluation would diminish Inappropriate placement of African-American students would be reduced Inappropriate placement of African-American students would be reduced

38 DESIRED OUTCOMES (cont.) General education teachers view culturally- sensitive FBA model within the domain of regular education General education teachers view culturally- sensitive FBA model within the domain of regular education Participating teachers commit to using the tools and processes Participating teachers commit to using the tools and processes

39 DESIRED OUTCOMES (cont.) Participating teachers would value the collegial process and plan future work with partners Participating teachers would value the collegial process and plan future work with partners Participating teachers would plan to use culturally-responsive instructional methods and curricula in the future Participating teachers would plan to use culturally-responsive instructional methods and curricula in the future

40 PREREFERRAL RESULTS Suburban Pilot Suburban Pilot The number of students referred to prereferral team increased from year 1 to year 2; The number of students referred to prereferral team increased from year 1 to year 2; The number of African-American students referred (prereferral) remained high (68%); The number of African-American students referred (prereferral) remained high (68%); The number of behavioral prereferrals increased The number of behavioral prereferrals increased

41 ASSESSMENT RESULTS Suburban Pilot Suburban Pilot Year 1 Of all students referred to prereferral team, 32% were evaluated for special education. 23% were African-American, 9% were Biracial Of all students referred to prereferral team, 32% were evaluated for special education. 23% were African-American, 9% were Biracial Year 2 Out of all prereferrals, 31% were evaluated. 16% were African-American, 13% were Caucasian, 2% were American Indian Out of all prereferrals, 31% were evaluated. 16% were African-American, 13% were Caucasian, 2% were American Indian

42 PLACEMENT RESULTS Suburban Pilot Suburban Pilot Year 1 34% of prereferrals were placed in special education. 19% were African-American, 10% biracial, 5% Hispanic 34% of prereferrals were placed in special education. 19% were African-American, 10% biracial, 5% Hispanic Year 2 21% of prereferrals were placed in special education. 12% were African-American, 8% Caucasian, 1% American Indian 21% of prereferrals were placed in special education. 12% were African-American, 8% Caucasian, 1% American Indian

43 PREREFERRAL RESULTS Urban Pilot Urban Pilot Slight decline in the number of referrals to prereferral team; Slight decline in the number of referrals to prereferral team; The number of African-American referrals rose from 60% of total prereferrals to 87% in year 2; The number of African-American referrals rose from 60% of total prereferrals to 87% in year 2; The number of behavioral referrals rose from 11% to 27% in year 2 (100% of these were African- American The number of behavioral referrals rose from 11% to 27% in year 2 (100% of these were African- American

44 ASSESSMENT RESULTS Urban Pilot Urban Pilot Year 1 Out of 16 prereferrals, 6 were evaluated. 1 African- American, 2 Caucasian, 2 Asian, 1 Hispanic Out of 16 prereferrals, 6 were evaluated. 1 African- American, 2 Caucasian, 2 Asian, 1 Hispanic Year 2 Out of 11 prereferrals, no African-American students were considered appropriate candidates for assessment (2 moved) Out of 11 prereferrals, no African-American students were considered appropriate candidates for assessment (2 moved)

45 PLACEMENT RESULTS Urban Pilot Urban Pilot Year 1 Out of 11 prereferrals, 1 African-American, 1 Caucasian and 1 Hispanic student were placed in special education Out of 11 prereferrals, 1 African-American, 1 Caucasian and 1 Hispanic student were placed in special education Year 2 No special education placements occurred during year 2 No special education placements occurred during year 2

46 Teacher-Related Outcomes General Self-Efficacy General Self-Efficacy Pre-training Post-training Suburban Pilot X=15.33 X=16.3 Urban Pilot X=18 X=17.6 N=8

47 Teacher-Related Outcomes Personal Self-Efficacy Personal Self-Efficacy Pre-training Post-training Suburban Pilot X=42 X=42 Urban Pilot X=42 X=44 N=8

48 Results of the Referral by Ethnicity Urban Pilot

49 Results of the Referral by Ethnicity Suburban Pilot

50 Students Placed in Special Education by Ethnicity Urban Pilot

51 Students Placed in Special Education by Ethnicity Suburban Pilot

52 Students Placed in Special Education by Ethnicity Suburban Pilot 2

53 Teacher-Related Outcomes 99% of teachers indicated that the model was feasible for use by general educators 99% of teachers indicated that the model was feasible for use by general educators Majority of teachers indicated that they would use the culturally-sensitive CBM tools and processes during the school year Majority of teachers indicated that they would use the culturally-sensitive CBM tools and processes during the school year

54 Teacher-Related Outcomes 100% of participating teachers valued the collegial partner experience and considered it an essential component of the model 100% of participating teachers valued the collegial partner experience and considered it an essential component of the model All teachers valued the information provided on culturally-responsive curricula and instructional methods All teachers valued the information provided on culturally-responsive curricula and instructional methods

55 Teacher-Related Outcomes 99% of teachers indicated that the model was feasible for use by general educators 99% of teachers indicated that the model was feasible for use by general educators Majority of teachers indicated that they would use the culturally-sensitive FBA tools and processes during the school year Majority of teachers indicated that they would use the culturally-sensitive FBA tools and processes during the school year

56 Teacher-Related Outcomes 100% of participating teachers valued the collegial partner experience and considered it an essential component of the model 100% of participating teachers valued the collegial partner experience and considered it an essential component of the model All teachers valued the information provided on culturally-responsive curricula and instructional methods All teachers valued the information provided on culturally-responsive curricula and instructional methods

57 Teacher-Related Outcomes Based on Trainer evaluations: Scaffolding and modeling of culturally-sensitive problem analysis and hypothesis development were essential elements of case-based training Scaffolding and modeling of culturally-sensitive problem analysis and hypothesis development were essential elements of case-based training

58 Implications for Model Implementation Building-level self-evaluation Building-level self-evaluation Prereferral team training followed by building-level training in CBM and culturally-responsive intervention design Prereferral team training followed by building-level training in CBM and culturally-responsive intervention design Internal and external sources of support for teachers to develop culturally-sensitive modes of problem analysis and culturally-responsive instruction Internal and external sources of support for teachers to develop culturally-sensitive modes of problem analysis and culturally-responsive instruction Time to collaborate with other teachers Time to collaborate with other teachers Has to be addressed at school and district levels. Has to be addressed at school and district levels. General education teacher ownership General education teacher ownership School-wide Progress Monitoring Model School-wide Progress Monitoring Model


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