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1 1 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULE CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CPTED): Module One: Background note: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission

2 2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION  Desktop review of best practice.  Interviews with principals (2 secondary, 1 primary).  Tours of schools with crime problems (2 secondary, 1 primary).  Interview with Stephen Nangle, Co- ordinator Quality and Standards, DEECD

3 3 WHAT IS CRIME? Dealing with 2 types of crime  Actual Against Persons (assaults, harassment) Against Property (Vandalism, Theft)  Perceived Fear of crime and violence We should focus on the what, who, where, when and how of crime

4 4 WHAT IS PERCEIVED CRIME?  “Wide range of emotional and practical responses to crime and disorder made by individuals and communities”  “Impact on people’s concerns about crime on everyday social life” Rachel Pain “Gender, Race, Age and Fear in the City”, Urban Studies, Vol. 38, Nos 5-6, ; 2001

5 5 IMPACT OF PERCEIVED CRIME  Avoidance of places and spaces. This makes them more susceptible to crimes due to abandonment.  May lead to preventative measures such as barbed wire or surveillance cameras which heightens fear of crime.  Has psychological and emotional effects on individuals, particularly children.

6 6 DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE (WHO, from “World Report on Violence and Health” 2002) “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.”

7 7 TYPES OF ACTUAL CRIME  Incivilities or minor crimes: vandalism and property damage graffiti harassment, etc.  Major property crimes break-ins theft  Personal or violent crimes Robbery assault, sexual assault homicide

8 8 WHO ARE OFFENDERS?  Parents  Students and ex-students  ‘Strangers’  Other staff  Offenders often don’t look like bad guys!

9 9 WHO AND WHAT IS AFFECTED?  Against the person: Staff Students Parents Other users of schools  Against property: School buildings School property School grounds

10 10 WHEN AND HOW?  When: during school hours After hours  How: Could be single or multiple offender

11 11 IMPACT OF CRIME  Human cost Fear and Intimidation Stress Bad reputation for school  Financial cost Replacement of windows / infrastructure Work Cover claims and premiums Possible liability  Environmental cost Poor image

12 12 HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (1) 1. Respond through treatment: Punishment of perpetrator Counseling of victim Property Maintenance:  Repair/replacement of stolen or damaged property.  Removal of graffiti Deal with specific risk factors to prevent recurrence  Redesign  Education

13 13 HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (2) 2. Prevention: Address crimes at their source before they occur through: CPTED/ Safer design (our focus) Monitoring and addressing of risk factors (tensions between students, violence in homes) Education (e.g. bullying, racism, homophobia, code of conduct)

14 14 CRIME PREVENTION  The line between victims and offenders is sometimes hazy (eg., fight between students on school grounds)  Crimes can often be de-escalated or avoided  Prevention can’t stop ALL crimes; at best, minimize opportunities for successful damage and maximize opportunities for successful evasion or defence

15 15 THEORY OF CRIME PREVENTION 2 categories of crime prevention:  Social prevention: Understand social reason why crime is occurring – deal with root causes  Opportunity reduction: Prevent it happening by designing it out Prevent it happening at hot spots through increased police presence, surveillance Usually used in combination

16 16 CRIME IN SCHOOLS STATISTICS  Information gathered from: Emergency management section of DEECD Interviews with school principals

17 17 Information from DEECD Nature and extent of crimes in schools (in order of severity):  1. Vandalism - Intentional malicious damage of school property Graffiti Broken windows Donuts in car parks and ovals Broken/damaged fences Abuse of motor vehicles Motor bikes racing in circuits on school property  2. Break ins Theft of computer equipment

18 18 Information from DEECD cont…  3. Trespass – presence of people on school with intent to commit crimes presence of people who have no legitimate reason to be on school’s property as opposed to people passing through, walking dogs tends to be young adults results in spontaneous criminal acts when people view computer and other electrical equipment of greatest concern in primary schools  4. Arson small acts of arson cause major damage

19 19 Information from school principals  Questions asked of principals: 1. What sorts of crimes are you having to address? 2. Do the crimes tend to occur from within the school community or are they committed by outsiders? 3. Is there a pattern to them? 4. Why do you think these crimes are happening? 5. Do you have any suggestions as to how to address these crimes?

20 20 1. TYPES OF CRIMES  Substance abuse: Smoking Drugs  Break ins and thefts Computers, electrical equipment, DVD, bikes Canteen food  Vandalism: Broken windows Graffiti Broken playground equipment Burn outs  Assaults: By a parent against staff Against students owing to a vendetta

21 21 2. WHO COMMITS THE CRIMES?  Ex students who have a vendetta.  Both students (current and ex) and the outside community.

22 22 3. PATTERNS OF CRIME  Weekends.  School holidays.  Usually in the hot weather when the kids can’t sleep.  Vandalism occurs where people can’t see it happening.  Windows that face the car park are broken.  Portables are hit a lot.

23 23 4. WHY DOES CRIME OCCUR?  Schools are often easy to get into.  Schools are used as thoroughfares.  Schools have up to date equipment.  Often multiple entry points to schools.  Not enough lighting or security cameras.  Often schools back onto houses.

24 24 5. COMMENTS  We don’t want to create prisons as this would send the wrong message.  Schools must remain a community resource.  Why are our children being so destructive?  Schools aren’t encouraging to children, they are not attractive or exciting.  The kids come quite well equipped so much of the crime is not opportunistic.

25 25 5. COMMENTS (CTD)  The school environment is sending the message that society doesn’t value them.  Children do not feel challenged by an unattractive environment.  Schools don’t feel supported by the police.  We would hate fences as it would feel like a jail and the kids would cut the fences anyway.

26 26 5. COMMENTS (CTD)  If you can keep it looking good it changes the way kids feel about the place and tells them that you care.  The more you have people using the place for the right purpose, the better.  The kids love the cameras, now, as they make them feel safer.

27 27 6. SUGGESTIONS  Windows : Plastic instead of glass. Install grills or break resistant film on windows. Tint the glass as crime is opportunistic. Bolt windows down. Screen windows with shutters, curtains. Place windows high up/use small windows.

28 28 6. SUGGESTIONS  Surveillance : Cameras. Sensor lights. Alarms. Remove alcoves, nooks and crannies. Provide for security during design of building.

29 29 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD  Maintenance: Remove graffiti and replace windows quickly. Remove missiles (rocks) Repaint trouble spots in colours.  Uses: Have a mix of uses over the weekend.

30 30 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD  General design: Provide for bike racks. Place locker rooms outside the classrooms. Make sure there are enough locker rooms and that they are big enough. Avoid stairs and internal corridors as they are where bullying takes place.

31 31 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD  Perimeter treatment: Block off paths with gates Have as few entrances as possible. Allow people to move through but keep them at a distance from the school buildings.  Signage: Prohibiting signage doesn’t work.

32 32 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULE CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN Module Two - CPTED: Safer Design note: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission

33 33 What we cover 1. Principles of safer design 2. Elements of safer school design 3. The process of creating safer and more inclusive schools (photo: Dutch ‘window school’)

34 34 What we cover (cont…)  Will cover: Both exterior and interior of school property Both directly controlled by Planning Act and ‘suggestions’ Both design and social issues Primary and Secondary schools

35 35 5 Principles for Safer Design (DSE guidelines) 1. Visibility and Natural surveillance 2. Good connections and access 3. Maximizing activity in public space 4. Clearly defined public/private ownership 5. Management of public space for attractiveness, legibility, and use, including evaluation

36 36 1. Visibility and Natural Surveillance  Common crime element: assumption by the offender that they won’t be seen or reported Crimes often occur off main pathways in low visibility areas

37 37 Who provides surveillance?  Formal surveillance from police (and private security)  Far more important is ‘informal surveillance’ from users and neighbours (students, teachers, admin staff, people living in community, nearby stores, passers- by)… ‘eyes on the street’

38 38 Eyes on the school: good

39 39 Eyes on the School: Not so good

40 40 Windows are a great form of natural surveillance (and light!)

41 41 Windows: problematic

42 42 Provide light for areas intended to be used after dark (secure lights)

43 43 Don’t light areas not intended to be used after dark!

44 44 CCTV – a valuable tool

45 45 2. Safe Movement, Good Connection and Access: Why?  Important that everyone (including people with temporary or permanent mobility disabilities) be able to know their way around

46 46 Connection and access: good

47 47 Connections and Access: not so good

48 48 Front entrance: not so good

49 49 3. Maximizing Activity: Why?  As previously stated, offenders like places they know aren’t being used  Maximizing activity increases informal surveillance, reduces hours public spaces are spent ‘empty’ and increases sense of ownership from community

50 50 Maximizing activities: good (

51 51 4. Ownership: Why?  Perhaps the most important element for safer schools is a strong sense as you enter the property that you are entering a place with rules and ‘ownership ’  Don’t want US-style entrance with on-site security and metal detectors

52 52 Sense of ownership as design  Simplified sometimes into a maintenance issue (e.g. ‘broken windows’), but refers wholly to reinforcing, through design, that the property ‘belongs’ to staff, school, and other legitimate users

53 53 Signage - important form of ownership

54 54 Art and community gardens good way to reinforce ownership (and increase activity)! (photos:; c. whitzman)

55 55 5. Management and Maintenance: Why?  Improves public and user perceptions  Also includes ‘post occupancy’ evaluation of new schools and renovations: knowing what works and what doesn’t (including student opinions as well as adults); further modifications as necessary

56 56 Management and maintenance  Ensure broken lights, play equipment, garbage overflow, graffiti are repaired promptly  Encourage students, staff, and parents to report!

57 57 Bad management: the classic ‘broken windows’

58 58 A closer look at each area a. Entrances b. Common areas c. Toilets and change rooms d. Classrooms and Hallways e. School Grounds f. Parking Areas

59 59 a. Entrances  One clear wheelchair accessible entrance, preferably visible from street  Ensure that landscaping and lighting enforces this clarity  Don’t ghettoize users with disabilities  Map for large campuses  Clear rules (check in at office) but welcoming

60 60 Around school: transition school zones

61 61 Front entrance of schools: not good

62 62 Front entrance of school: Not so good Good

63 63 Good entrance (includes access)

64 64 School sign obscured by landscaping

65 65 Sign directing people from parking lot

66 66 Rules made clear (but not very welcoming!)

67 67 Unwelcome to our school!

68 68 b. Common Areas  Office, staff room, nurses or first aid room (if applicable), meeting or general purpose rooms, auditoriums, adult toilets  Best clustered in one area: why? Can access help during school hours Informal surveillance Clear demarcation between public and private space

69 69 Common Areas clustered

70 70 General purpose rooms Used for assemblies and out of school hours care: informal surveillance of schoolyard

71 71 Community Facilities  If open to public after hours, should be self-contained: toilets, garbage cans, drinking fountains nearby to avoid roaming into ‘semi-public space’ after hours

72 72 c. Toilets and locker rooms  Can be entrapment areas (one entrance can be blocked off)  Common site for bullying or assault, as well as vandalism and smoking  Should be enough toilets for each cluster of classrooms (close to classes, not isolated: avoids excess wandering in halls and also ‘accidents’)  Separate toilets/ lockers for younger children from toilets for older children: avoiding bullying

73 73 Good toilet facilities

74 74 d. Classrooms and hallways  Should be able to be locked from inside (some entrapment concerns, but theft concerns override)  Some way to get help window onto hallway, buddy system, portable radio, intercom, alarm or phone

75 75 Secure Rooms  Especially important to lock rooms for storing: dangerous equipment and supplies (Woodworking, kilns, kitchens, chemistry) Expensive equipment or supplies (musical instruments, computers) Medications (First aid or nursing area)

76 76 Secure Rooms: bad

77 77 Secure Rooms: better

78 78 Hallways  Great to have student art etc.: schools should be well-loved!  Ensure they are well lit, well-signed, well-maintained

79 79 Hallways: better

80 80 Problem: portables

81 81 Slightly better: replaced bars

82 82 e. School grounds  Often open to public use outside school hours: great  Should be limited to pupils, teachers, and volunteers, during school hours  Should have range of playing spaces (active, passive)

83 83 Student gathering places  Not immediately adjacent to street (too easy to run off!), shaded and near water  May be good idea to separate space for younger students (prep in primary, years 7-8 in secondary) from older students Play or seating equipment, rules

84 84 Gathering places: good (older kids)

85 85 Gathering places: good (younger kids)

86 86 Passive activity (sitting) space, shaded and with student art

87 87 Boundaries between school grounds and joint use  Fencing, landscaping, ground surface, changes in elevation  Note: Solid walls attract graffiti and detract from informal surveillance  Note: Wire mesh fence may be climbed - can have smaller mesh  Need to enforce rules, especially in primary school

88 88 Boundary: good!

89 89 f. Parking Areas  Ideally, staff and students should be encouraged to take active transport (walking, cycling, public transport) Lots of secure bike parking with good natural surveillance for both students and staff  Car parking should be clearly signed (eg., staff only) and visible from surrounding areas  Caution: not immediately adjacent to pedestrian exit!!!

90 90 Bike parking Not greatBetter

91 91 Parking: Not greatBetter

92 92 The future of safer school design  More and more schools are moving towards a community hub model: parent-child drop-ins, afterschool care, maternal and child health centres, ESL Improved learning outcomes, especially for low-income, single-parent, and non- ESL kids Use of precious ‘public’ space in both existing neighbourhoods (Elwood) and new growth areas (Caroline Springs)

93 93 Inclusive Schools  In the Netherlands, community schools have municipal management and rent out space to cafes, public libraries and public pools, as well as health and social services Open 8 a.m. to 11 p.m.!

94 94 Designing for inclusive schools  Multipurpose rooms near ‘public part of school’ (entrance, school grounds)  Flexible space so when there is demographic change, schools can respond imaginatively instead of close!

95 95 Schools as community hubs  Goes beyond formal services to encouraging parent and community involvement: Art and music Community gardens Local goods and services

96 96 Schools Promoting Active Transport  Walking School Bus  Bicycle safety in schools  Get kids to explore neighbouring shops and parks as part of curriculum (field trips, assignments)  School Transport Plan: working with parents and local govt to get bike paths and safe walking paths, limit car parking around schools  Safety audits around schools

97 97 The community as curriculum credit:  Science: biodiversity in suburb, how living things grow and change, watersheds and water conservation, interaction between humans and nature  Geography/history: how the suburb has changed over time, mapping, relationship of suburb and city, how space is organized  Play as discovery: gardens, displays, using imagination

98 98 Schools as part of community (photos:

99 99 Design assessment: new school  For new schools, review schematic plans for safety considerations (DEECD, architect, project planner)  Review again at 30% and 95% completion  Include community in planning (what kinds of services are needed in school and community)?... Sense of ownership! Potential parent-school council!

100 100 Design Assessment: existing school  Include DEECD staff (district facility manager), principal, interested staff, custodian, architectural and planning staff, parent-school council  For both new and existing school, think ahead as to goals and review at the end of project, and after 2 years

101 101 Involve kids!  Encourage students to do safety audits in schools and communities and then follow up!

102 102 Resources: websites  Australian Institute of Criminology ( Good Australian-based resource on crime and crime prevention, including school safety.  International Centre for the Prevention of Crime ( International resources, including school safety.  Google and Scholar Google ( Good sources of up-to-date reports and academic publications, respectively.  Campbell Collaboration ( Evidence-based research on crime prevention  Boston Schoolyards Project ( inspiring examples of inclusive schoolyard design  Better Toilets for Pupils ( everyone’s favourite topic!

103 103 Books and Reports: general CPTED  Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005) Safer Design Guidelines for Victoria (Melbourne: State of Victoria). No direct discussion of schools, but good general guidelines and clear illustrations. Downloadable.  Wekerle, Gerda and Whitzman, Carolyn (1995) Safe Cities: guidelines for planning, design and maintenance (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold). Discussion of school yards pp , and university and college campuses pp particularly relevant.  Marcus, Clare Cooper and Francis, Carolyn (1990) People Places: design guidelines for urban open space (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold). Chapters 4 on Campus and Outdoor Spaces and Chapter 6 on Day Care Outdoor Spaces particularly relevant.

104 104 Resources on Safer Schools  Schneider, Tod; Walker, Hill; Sprague, Jeffrey (2000) Safe School Design: a Handbook for Educational Leaders Applying the Principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Eugene Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educaton Management. Downloadable.  National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (2006). Safe School Facilities Checklist. Comprehensive and can easily be modified for DEECD use. Downloadable.  Paul van Soomeren (2002) Prevention of Crime in and Around High Schools (the Amsterdam School Safety Project): Lessons in implementation (Paper presented at The Role of Schools in Crime Prevention Conference, Australian Institute of Criminology/DEECD, Melbourne, 30 September- 1 October 2002). Good holistic and process-oriented overview of a high school safety project. Downloadable.

105 105 More Resources on Safer Schools  National Institute of Justice (1999) The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools. Washington: National Institute of Justice. While very US-specific, there are some good designs of safer schools. Downloadable.  Shaw, Margaret (2004) Promoting Safety in Schools: international experience and action (Montreal: International Centre for the Prevention of Crime). Downloadable.US Department of Education (2002) Safety in Numbers: collecting and using crime, violence and incident data to make a difference in schools. Downloadable.  National Crime Prevention Council (2003) School Safety and Security Toolkit: a guide for parents, schools and communities (Washington: NCPC). Can be ordered for $1.


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