Presentation on theme: "DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULECRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CPTED):Module One: Backgroundnote: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission
2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Desktop review of best practice.Interviews with principals (2 secondary, 1 primary).Tours of schools with crime problems (2 secondary, 1 primary).Interview with Stephen Nangle, Co-ordinator Quality and Standards, DEECD
3 WHAT IS CRIME? Dealing with 2 types of crime Actual Perceived Against Persons (assaults, harassment)Against Property (Vandalism, Theft)PerceivedFear of crime and violenceWe should focus on the what, who, where, when and how of crime
4 WHAT IS PERCEIVED CRIME? “Wide range of emotional and practical responses to crime and disorder made by individuals and communities”“Impact on people’s concerns about crime on everyday social life”Rachel Pain “Gender, Race, Age and Fear in the City”, Urban Studies, Vol. 38, Nos 5-6, ; 2001
5 IMPACT OF PERCEIVED CRIME Avoidance of places and spaces. This makes them more susceptible to crimes due to abandonment.May lead to preventative measures such as barbed wire or surveillance cameras which heightens fear of crime.Has psychological and emotional effects on individuals, particularly children.
6 DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE (WHO, from “World Report on Violence and Health” 2002)“The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.”
7 TYPES OF ACTUAL CRIME Incivilities or minor crimes: vandalism and property damagegraffitiharassment, etc.Major property crimesbreak-instheftPersonal or violent crimesRobberyassault, sexual assaulthomicide
8 WHO ARE OFFENDERS? Parents Students and ex-students ‘Strangers’ Other staffOffenders often don’t look like bad guys!
9 WHO AND WHAT IS AFFECTED? Against the person:StaffStudentsParentsOther users of schoolsAgainst property:School buildingsSchool propertySchool grounds
10 WHEN AND HOW? When: How: during school hours After hours Could be single or multiple offender
11 IMPACT OF CRIME Human cost Fear and Intimidation Stress Bad reputation for schoolFinancial costReplacement of windows / infrastructureWork Cover claims and premiumsPossible liabilityEnvironmental costPoor image
12 HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (1) Respond through treatment:Punishment of perpetratorCounseling of victimProperty Maintenance:Repair/replacement of stolen or damaged property.Removal of graffitiDeal with specific risk factors to prevent recurrenceRedesignEducation
13 HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (2) Prevention:Address crimes at their source before they occur through:CPTED/ Safer design (our focus)Monitoring and addressing of risk factors (tensions between students, violence in homes)Education (e.g. bullying, racism, homophobia, code of conduct)
14 CRIME PREVENTIONThe line between victims and offenders is sometimes hazy (eg., fight between students on school grounds)Crimes can often be de-escalated or avoidedPrevention can’t stop ALL crimes; at best, minimize opportunities for successful damage and maximize opportunities for successful evasion or defence
15 THEORY OF CRIME PREVENTION 2 categories of crime prevention:Social prevention:Understand social reason why crime is occurring – deal with root causesOpportunity reduction:Prevent it happening by designing it outPrevent it happening at hot spots through increased police presence, surveillanceUsually used in combination
16 CRIME IN SCHOOLS STATISTICS Information gathered from:Emergency management section of DEECDInterviews with school principals
17 Information from DEECD Nature and extent of crimes in schools (in order of severity):1. Vandalism - Intentional malicious damage of school propertyGraffitiBroken windowsDonuts in car parks and ovalsBroken/damaged fencesAbuse of motor vehiclesMotor bikes racing in circuits on school property2. Break insTheft of computer equipment
18 Information from DEECD cont… 3. Trespass – presence of people on school with intent to commit crimespresence of people who have no legitimate reason to be on school’s property as opposed to people passing through, walking dogstends to be young adultsresults in spontaneous criminal acts when people view computer and other electrical equipmentof greatest concern in primary schools4. Arsonsmall acts of arson cause major damage
19 Information from school principals Questions asked of principals:What sorts of crimes are you having to address?Do the crimes tend to occur from within the school community or are they committed by outsiders?Is there a pattern to them?Why do you think these crimes are happening?Do you have any suggestions as to how to address these crimes?
20 1. TYPES OF CRIMES Substance abuse: Break ins and thefts Vandalism: SmokingDrugsBreak ins and theftsComputers, electrical equipment, DVD, bikesCanteen foodVandalism:Broken windowsGraffitiBroken playground equipmentBurn outsAssaults:By a parent against staffAgainst students owing to a vendetta
21 2. WHO COMMITS THE CRIMES? Ex students who have a vendetta. Both students (current and ex) and the outside community.
22 3. PATTERNS OF CRIME Weekends. School holidays. Usually in the hot weather when the kids can’t sleep.Vandalism occurs where people can’t see it happening.Windows that face the car park are broken.Portables are hit a lot.
23 4. WHY DOES CRIME OCCUR? Schools are often easy to get into. Schools are used as thoroughfares.Schools have up to date equipment.Often multiple entry points to schools.Not enough lighting or security cameras.Often schools back onto houses.
24 5. COMMENTSWe don’t want to create prisons as this would send the wrong message.Schools must remain a community resource.Why are our children being so destructive?Schools aren’t encouraging to children, they are not attractive or exciting.The kids come quite well equipped so much of the crime is not opportunistic.
25 5. COMMENTS (CTD)The school environment is sending the message that society doesn’t value them.Children do not feel challenged by an unattractive environment.Schools don’t feel supported by the police.We would hate fences as it would feel like a jail and the kids would cut the fences anyway.
26 5. COMMENTS (CTD)If you can keep it looking good it changes the way kids feel about the place and tells them that you care.The more you have people using the place for the right purpose, the better.The kids love the cameras, now, as they make them feel safer.
27 6. SUGGESTIONS Windows: Plastic instead of glass. Install grills or break resistant film on windows.Tint the glass as crime is opportunistic.Bolt windows down.Screen windows with shutters, curtains.Place windows high up/use small windows.
28 6. SUGGESTIONS Surveillance: Cameras. Sensor lights. Alarms. Remove alcoves, nooks and crannies.Provide for security during design of building.
29 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD Maintenance: Uses: Remove graffiti and replace windows quickly.Remove missiles (rocks)Repaint trouble spots in colours.Uses:Have a mix of uses over the weekend.
30 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD General design: Provide for bike racks. Place locker rooms outside the classrooms.Make sure there are enough locker rooms and that they are big enough.Avoid stairs and internal corridors as they are where bullying takes place.
31 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD Perimeter treatment: Signage: Block off paths with gatesHave as few entrances as possible.Allow people to move through but keep them at a distance from the school buildings.Signage:Prohibiting signage doesn’t work.
32 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULECRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNModule Two - CPTED: Safer Designnote: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission
33 What we cover Principles of safer design Elements of safer school designThe process of creating safer and more inclusive schools (photo: Dutch ‘window school’)
34 What we cover (cont…) Will cover: Both exterior and interior of school propertyBoth directly controlled by Planning Act and ‘suggestions’Both design and social issuesPrimary and Secondary schools
35 5 Principles for Safer Design (DSE guidelines) Visibility and Natural surveillanceGood connections and accessMaximizing activity in public spaceClearly defined public/private ownershipManagement of public space for attractiveness, legibility, and use, including evaluation
36 1. Visibility and Natural Surveillance Common crime element: assumption by the offender that they won’t be seen or reportedCrimes often occur off main pathways in low visibility areas
37 Who provides surveillance? Formal surveillance from police (and private security)Far more important is ‘informal surveillance’ from users and neighbours (students, teachers, admin staff, people living in community, nearby stores, passers-by)… ‘eyes on the street’
49 3. Maximizing Activity: Why? As previously stated, offenders like places they know aren’t being usedMaximizing activity increases informal surveillance, reduces hours public spaces are spent ‘empty’ and increases sense of ownership from community
50 Maximizing activities: good (photos:schoolyards.org)
51 4. Ownership: Why?Perhaps the most important element for safer schools is a strong sense as you enter the property that you are entering a place with rules and ‘ownership’Don’t want US-style entrance with on-site security and metal detectors
52 Sense of ownership as design Simplified sometimes into a maintenance issue (e.g. ‘broken windows’), but refers wholly to reinforcing, through design, that the property ‘belongs’ to staff, school, and other legitimate users
54 Art and community gardens good way to reinforce ownership (and increase activity)! (photos: schoolyards.org; c. whitzman)
55 5. Management and Maintenance: Why? Improves public and user perceptionsAlso includes ‘post occupancy’ evaluation of new schools and renovations: knowing what works and what doesn’t (including student opinions as well as adults); further modifications as necessary
56 Management and maintenance Ensure broken lights, play equipment, garbage overflow, graffiti are repaired promptlyEncourage students, staff, and parents to report!
58 A closer look at each area EntrancesCommon areasToilets and change roomsClassrooms and HallwaysSchool GroundsParking Areas
59 a. EntrancesOne clear wheelchair accessible entrance, preferably visible from streetEnsure that landscaping and lighting enforces this clarityDon’t ghettoize users with disabilitiesMap for large campusesClear rules (check in at office) but welcoming
68 b. Common AreasOffice, staff room, nurses or first aid room (if applicable), meeting or general purpose rooms, auditoriums, adult toiletsBest clustered in one area: why?Can access help during school hoursInformal surveillanceClear demarcation between public and private space
70 General purpose roomsUsed for assemblies and out of school hours care: informal surveillance of schoolyard
71 Community FacilitiesIf open to public after hours, should be self-contained: toilets, garbage cans, drinking fountains nearby to avoid roaming into ‘semi-public space’ after hours
72 c. Toilets and locker rooms Can be entrapment areas (one entrance can be blocked off)Common site for bullying or assault, as well as vandalism and smokingShould be enough toilets for each cluster of classrooms (close to classes, not isolated: avoids excess wandering in halls and also ‘accidents’)Separate toilets/ lockers for younger children from toilets for older children: avoiding bullying
74 d. Classrooms and hallways Should be able to be locked from inside (some entrapment concerns, but theft concerns override)Some way to get helpwindow onto hallway,buddy system,portable radio,intercom,alarm orphone
75 Secure Rooms Especially important to lock rooms for storing: dangerous equipment and supplies (Woodworking, kilns, kitchens, chemistry)Expensive equipment or supplies (musical instruments, computers)Medications (First aid or nursing area)
82 e. School grounds Often open to public use outside school hours: great Should be limited to pupils, teachers, and volunteers, during school hoursShould have range of playing spaces (active, passive)
83 Student gathering places Not immediately adjacent to street (too easy to run off!), shaded and near waterMay be good idea to separate space for younger students (prep in primary, years 7-8 in secondary) from older studentsPlay or seating equipment, rules
86 Passive activity (sitting) space, shaded and with student art
87 Boundaries between school grounds and joint use Fencing, landscaping, ground surface, changes in elevationNote: Solid walls attract graffiti and detract from informal surveillanceNote: Wire mesh fence may be climbed - can have smaller meshNeed to enforce rules, especially in primary school
89 f. Parking AreasIdeally, staff and students should be encouraged to take active transport (walking, cycling, public transport)Lots of secure bike parking with good natural surveillance for both students and staffCar parking should be clearly signed (eg., staff only) and visible from surrounding areasCaution: not immediately adjacent to pedestrian exit!!!
92 The future of safer school design More and more schools are moving towards a community hub model:parent-child drop-ins, afterschool care, maternal and child health centres, ESLImproved learning outcomes, especially for low-income, single-parent, and non-ESL kidsUse of precious ‘public’ space in both existing neighbourhoods (Elwood) and new growth areas (Caroline Springs)
93 Inclusive SchoolsIn the Netherlands, community schools have municipal management and rent out space to cafes, public libraries and public pools, as well as health and social servicesOpen 8 a.m. to 11 p.m.!
94 Designing for inclusive schools Multipurpose rooms near ‘public part of school’ (entrance, school grounds)Flexible space so when there is demographic change, schools can respond imaginatively instead of close!
95 Schools as community hubs Goes beyond formal services to encouraging parent and community involvement:Art and musicCommunity gardensLocal goods and services
96 Schools Promoting Active Transport Walking School BusBicycle safety in schoolsGet kids to explore neighbouring shops and parks as part of curriculum (field trips, assignments)School Transport Plan: working with parents and local govt to get bike paths and safe walking paths, limit car parking around schoolsSafety audits around schools
97 The community as curriculum credit: schoolyards.org Science: biodiversity in suburb, how living things grow and change, watersheds and water conservation, interaction between humans and natureGeography/history: how the suburb has changed over time, mapping, relationship of suburb and city, how space is organizedPlay as discovery: gardens, displays, using imagination
98 Schools as part of community (photos: schoolyards.org)
99 Design assessment: new school For new schools, review schematic plans for safety considerations (DEECD, architect, project planner)Review again at 30% and 95% completionInclude community in planning (what kinds of services are needed in school and community)?... Sense of ownership! Potential parent-school council!
100 Design Assessment: existing school Include DEECD staff (district facility manager), principal, interested staff, custodian, architectural and planning staff, parent-school councilFor both new and existing school, think ahead as to goals and review at the end of project, and after 2 years
101 Involve kids!Encourage students to do safety audits in schools and communities and then follow up!
102 Resources: websitesAustralian Institute of Criminology (www.aic.gov.au): Good Australian-based resource on crime and crime prevention, including school safety.International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (www.crime-prevention-intl.org): International resources, including school safety.Google and Scholar Google (www.scholargoogle.com): Good sources of up-to-date reports and academic publications, respectively.Campbell Collaboration (www.campbellcollaboration.org): Evidence-based research on crime preventionBoston Schoolyards Project (www.schoolyards.org): inspiring examples of inclusive schoolyard designBetter Toilets for Pupils (www.bog-standard.org): everyone’s favourite topic!
103 Books and Reports: general CPTED Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005) Safer Design Guidelines for Victoria (Melbourne: State of Victoria). No direct discussion of schools, but good general guidelines and clear illustrations. Downloadable.Wekerle, Gerda and Whitzman, Carolyn (1995) Safe Cities: guidelines for planning, design and maintenance (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold). Discussion of school yards pp , and university and college campuses pp particularly relevant.Marcus, Clare Cooper and Francis, Carolyn (1990) People Places: design guidelines for urban open space (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold). Chapters 4 on Campus and Outdoor Spaces and Chapter 6 on Day Care Outdoor Spaces particularly relevant.
104 Resources on Safer Schools Schneider, Tod; Walker, Hill; Sprague, Jeffrey (2000) Safe School Design: a Handbook for Educational Leaders Applying the Principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Eugene Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educaton Management. Downloadable.National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (2006). Safe School Facilities Checklist. Comprehensive and can easily be modified for DEECD use. Downloadable.Paul van Soomeren (2002) Prevention of Crime in and Around High Schools (the Amsterdam School Safety Project): Lessons in implementation (Paper presented at The Role of Schools in Crime Prevention Conference, Australian Institute of Criminology/DEECD, Melbourne, 30 September- 1 October 2002). Good holistic and process-oriented overview of a high school safety project. Downloadable.
105 More Resources on Safer Schools National Institute of Justice (1999) The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools. Washington: National Institute of Justice. While very US-specific, there are some good designs of safer schools. Downloadable.Shaw, Margaret (2004) Promoting Safety in Schools: international experience and action (Montreal: International Centre for the Prevention of Crime). Downloadable.US Department of Education (2002) Safety in Numbers: collecting and using crime, violence and incident data to make a difference in schools. Downloadable.National Crime Prevention Council (2003) School Safety and Security Toolkit: a guide for parents, schools and communities (Washington: NCPC). Can be ordered for $1.