3Bell Ringer: Make a list of 5 valid claims relating to patterns of urbanization you can see in the map
4The Process of Urbanization Urbanization: the process by which an increasing percentage of a country’s population comes to live in towns and cities. It may involve both rural-urban migration and natural increase.
5Causes of urbanization Rural to urban migrationNatural Increase
6Rural – urban migration Rural to urban migration – result of push and pull factors
7Push and pull factors Push factors Pull factors Difficult/harsh climate – eg. droughtsChance of a better lifeStruggle to provide food for familyBetter housing and amenitiesVery low incomeChance of good jobs – higher wages, more varied employmentHigh rates of population growth have put pressure on natural resources such as water/energy/landBetter medical/health careCan’t afford to fertilizers to increase yieldsChildren able to go to schoolMechanization of farming favors rich farmer and leads to unemployment or underemployment of poor farmer.
8Natural increaseThe people that migrate into towns and cities tend to be young resulting in high levels of natural increasehigh % of young adults = high levels of birthsFalling death rates due to improved medical care means more babies are born than people dying, further increasing the urban population
13Elbow Partner Discussions Using the last two data slides, discuss this question:Why are there higher rates of urbanization in developing nations compared to developed nations?
14Graphing Global Urbanization Activity Step 1: Take 5 minutes to read/annotate data set. Be sure to read definition of agglomerations for notecards!Step 2: In elbow partners, answer the following questions:How many urban agglomerations had a population greater than 10 million in 1950? Where were these urban areas?Describe the changes in the number and location of urban agglomerations in 1975, 2000, and 2010.What changes does the UN project for 2025?
15Graphing Global Urbanization Activity Step 3: Graph the Data.Create a comparative bar graph showing bars for each of the following continents (N. America, S. America, Europe, Asia, Africa) and different colors for each time period in the handoutY axis will be number of urban areas in each time period in each continent
16Graphing Global Urbanization Activity Step 4: Analyze the data. In one paragraph, answer the following prompt using data from your graph as resources.Discuss changing patterns of urbanization from
18Centripetal Movements involve the migration of people into towns and cities
19Urban Processes can be seen as inward and outward movements Inward Movement (Centripetal)Rural to urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization, urban renewalOutward Movement (Centrifugal)Suburbanization, urban sprawl, counter-urbanization
20Rural Push FactorsHigh rates of population growth have put pressure on natural resource such as water and energy and reduced the size of land holdingsNew farming technology favors the rich farmer, but for others it leads to unemployment or underemploymentMigration for work is often the only option(See complete list of rural push factors in yesterday’s notes)
21Urban Pull Factors Higher wages More varied employment Educational opportunities(See complete list in earlier notes)
22The Consequences of Urbanization Economic Growth:Urban economies are almost always more productive than rural onesIndustrial productivity is higher in cities.Cities are usually responsible for a greater percentage of total GDP
23The Consequences of Urbanization GentrificationThe Reinvestment of capital into inner-city areas.Improvement in residential areasIt is a type of filtering that may lead to the social displacement of poor people (as a place becomes gentrified, housing prices rise and the poor are unable to afford it– often times minorities)
24The Consequences of Urbanization Re-urbanization: (urban renewal) the development of activities to increase residential population densities within the existing built-up area of a city.This may include the redevelopment of vacant land and the refurbishment of housing and the development of new businesses.
25The Consequences of Urbanization Brownfield Sites: abandoned or underused industrial buildings and land, which may be contaminated but have potential for redevelopment
27Centrifugal Movements Also known as DecentralizationThe outward movements of a population from the center of a city towards its edge or periphery, resulting in the expansion of a city.
28SuburbanizationSuburb: a residential area just outside the boundaries of a city.Suburbanization: the outward growth of towns and cities to engulf surrounding villages and rural areas. This may result from the out-migration of population from the inner urban areas to the suburbs.
30Urban SprawlThe unplanned and uncontrolled physical expansion of an urban area into the surrounding countryside. It is closely linked with the process of suburbanization.Good examples of Urban Sprawl include Mexico City
32Counter-Urbanization A process involving the movement of populations away from inner urban areas to a new town, new estate, commuter town or village on the edge or just beyond the city limits or rural-urban fringe.Characteristic of wealthy cities in MEDCsIt is a response to increasing stress of overcrowding, congestion, pollution and crime.
33Reasons for counter-urbanization Increased car ownershipIncreased wealthDe-industrializationRelocation of industry/employment to rural urban fringeDesire for safe, pleasant environment, the rural ideal/utopiaPerception of urban areas as dangerous, high levels of crime, racial/ethnic problems – ‘white flight’Change in tenure from public/renting to private ownership. Sell property and move out.
34The Consequences of Centrifugal Movements Centrifugal movements involve a shift of population and economic activity from the center of the urban area to its periphery and beyond, which is detrimental to the center.Construction of roads and buildings destroy open space and increases air pollution
35Response to Consequences Urban Planners have focused on ways of reviving the urban center(urban renewal/gentrification) and restricting new construction in urban hinterlandsHinterlands: the zone surrounding a city
36The Family Life CycleIntra-urban population movement may involve shifts of population during the family life cycle.A person is likely to move around different zones of city depending on their age and their need for a house of a certain size.