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Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on solar energy The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2.Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on solar energy The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2.Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on solar energy The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2.Biodiversity Astounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and species 3.Chemical cycling Circulation of chemicals from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Also called nutrient cycling

2 We rely on solar energy Ok, Ok, there are some insignificant exceptions*

3 Where do “closed systems” like fish tanks get their energy?

4

5 Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on solar energy The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2.Biodiversity Astounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and species 3.Chemical cycling Circulation of chemicals from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Also called nutrient cycling

6 Diversity Makes a System Stronger Diversity allows natural systems to function since every player has a particular role. When one player drops out or is unable to fulfill its role AND if there is no other player around to step in, system function is compromised.

7 Diversity Makes a System Stronger Beginning in 1890s, and booming after WWII Detroit was one of the manufacturing capitals in America. However, with dramatic decreases in manufacturing demand brought on in part by cheaper production overseas, today Detroit has been considered a “collapsed city”.

8 Diversity Makes a System Stronger Beginning in 1890s, and booming after WWII Detroit was one of the manufacturing capitals in America. However, with dramatic decreases in manufacturing demand brought on in part by cheaper production overseas, today Detroit has been considered a “collapsed city”.

9 Panarchy Cycle

10 Uh oh!

11

12 Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Reserve, Costa Rica.

13 Corn Farm US

14 Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on solar energy The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2.Biodiversity Astounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and species 3.Chemical cycling Circulation of chemicals from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Also called nutrient cycling

15 Nutrient Cycling Fig. 1-5, p. 10

16 Nutrient Cycling Fig. 1-5, p. 10

17 1-1 What Are Three Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1-1A Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using solar energy, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Concept 1-1B Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun and on natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the earth.

18 Sustainability Has Certain Key Components Natural capital: supported by solar capital Natural resources: useful materials and energy in nature Natural services: important nature processes such as renewal of air, water, and soil Humans degrade and rely on natural capital Scientific solutions needed for environmental sustainability

19 Sustainability Has Certain Key Components Natural capital: supported by solar capital Natural resources: useful materials and energy in nature Natural services: important nature processes such as renewal of air, water, and soil Humans degrade and rely on natural capital Scientific solutions needed for environmental sustainability Ecosystem Services

20 Natural Capital Solar energy Air Air purification Climate control UV protection (ozone layer) Life (biodiversity) Water Population control Pest control Waste treatment Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Soil Land Soil renewal Food production Natural gas Nutrient recycling Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) Coal seam Natural resources Natural services Oil Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Water purification Fig. 1-4, p. 9 Ecosystem Services

21 Natural Capital Solar energy Air Air purification Climate control UV protection (ozone layer) Life (biodiversity) Water Population control Pest control Waste treatment Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Soil Land Soil renewal Food production Natural gas Nutrient recycling Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) Coal seam Natural resources Natural services Oil Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Water purification Fig. 1-4, p. 9 Ecosystem Services

22 Natural Capital and Natural Resources are now “Ecosystem Services”

23 Old way of thinking: Ecosystem Goods Raw materials provided by nature Essential inputs into all economic production We can use them up as fast as we like If I use it, you can't Competition for use Market goods Ecosystem structure, building blocks of ecosystems

24 Ecosystem Services Structure generates function Ecosystem functions of value to humans known as ecosystem services Includes life support and human well-being functions

25 On Tuesday Tuesday Finished discussion on Sustainability 3 principles of sustainability Panarchy Natural Capital  Ecosystem Services Today 3 types of ecosystem services (or 4?)

26 Greywater

27 Desalinization Factors that determine the costs for desalination include capacity and type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing, and concentrate disposal. Desalination stills now control pressure, temperature and brine concentrations to optimize efficiency.

28 Panarchy Panarchy is a conceptual term first coined by the Belgian philosopher, economist, and botanist Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, referring to a specific form of governance (-Archie) that would encompass (pan-) all others.

29 Panarchy Panarchy is a conceptual term first coined by the Belgian philosopher, economist, and botanist Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, referring to a specific form of governance (-Archie) that would encompass (pan-) all others. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature also simultaneously coined the term, saying: The term [panarchy] was coined as an antithesis to the word hierarchy (literally, sacred rules). Our view is that panarchy is a framework of nature's rules, hinted at by the name of the Greek god of nature, Pan. (CS “Buzz” Holling)

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31 1. Provisioning Services Production of food, fuel, fiber (regeneration of structure) Food (fish) Food (crops) Materials for clothes (fur, leather) Building materials (Tiber)

32 2. Regulatory Services Water regulation Disturbance reg Erosion control Soil creation Pollination Climate regulation Nutrient cycling Biological control Waste absorption etc.

33 3. Cultural Services Recreation, tourism Forests: jobs for 2,393 Vermont Annual payrolls of $33 million annually Scenery Cultural attachments Surfing

34 Supporting Services (kind of?) Habitat Refugia Without biodiversity, there are no other services

35 When making decisions about ecosystem services, there are trade-offs

36 There is still a lot to figure out about ecosystem services What services are most managed? How are they managed? By whom? Where are they managed? Who benefits? Are there environmental polices that specifically deal with ecosystem services? Surveyed 250 environmental managers on the local, state, and federal levels (both gov’t and NGOs)

37 There is still a lot to figure out about ecosystem services What services are most managed? How are they managed? By whom? Where are they managed? Who benefits? Are there environmental polices that specifically deal with ecosystem services? Surveyed 250 environmental managers on the local, state, and federal levels (both gov’t and NGOs) I lived here.

38 Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems 38 Management is researching, monitoring, making decisions, and/or providing outreach or education Provisional BenefitsCultural Benefits

39 Ecosystem Services in Literature

40 If Eco Services are so important, what services are we managing?

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42 If Eco Services are so important, why are we managing them?

43 At what scale are we managing them and who benefits?

44 Fig. 1-6, p. 10 Habitat, Nutrient Cycling, Maintaining Genetic Diversity, Disease Control, Cultural Significance, etc. (Brazil ) Food production When making decisions about ecosystem services, there are trade-offs

45 How do we not imbalance these cycles and move toward more sustainable outcomes?

46 Such as simple thing….but pretty important As a way to decrease the rate of natural capital degradation…

47 Such as simple thing….but pretty important As a way to decrease the rate of natural capital degradation… Increased consumption has had a significant impact on the environment which was driven by a number of factors…

48 Post WWII 2 things significantly impacted resource consumption First, there were more people (and more people consume more than fewer people). After World War II, consumer spending no longer meant just satisfying an indulgent material desire. In fact, the American consumer was praised as a patriotic citizen in the 1950s, contributing to the ultimate success of the American way of life. "The good purchaser devoted to 'more, newer and better' was the good citizen," historian Lizabeth Cohen explained, "since economic recovery after a decade and a half of depression and war depended on a dynamic mass consumption economy."

49 The birth of the suburb!

50 growth consumption

51

52 Reuse Fig. 1-7, p. 11

53 Reuse Fig. 1-7, p. 11

54 Recycle Fig. 1-8, p. 12 Scientists estimate that we could recycle and reuse 80– 90% of the resources that we now use and thus come closer to mimicking the way nature recycles essentially everything. Recycling is important but it involves dealing with wastes we have produced. Ideally, we should focus more on using less, reusing items, and reducing our unnecessary waste of resources.


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