Presentation on theme: "INTEGRATED MICROSYSTEM OF WATER AND ECOLOGICAL SANITATION FOR PERIURBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN PERU By: Juan Carlos Calizaya Luna Program AGUAECOSANPERU-CENCA."— Presentation transcript:
INTEGRATED MICROSYSTEM OF WATER AND ECOLOGICAL SANITATION FOR PERIURBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN PERU By: Juan Carlos Calizaya Luna Program AGUAECOSANPERU-CENCA STOCKHOLM, 2008
Population 27,5 (Million inhabitants);Population 27,5 (Million inhabitants); Rural sector: 7.9 MillionRural sector: 7.9 Million Urban sector: 19.6 MillionUrban sector: 19.6 Million Deficit in rural sector:Deficit in rural sector: Coast: 25%,Coast: 25%, Andean Region (Sierra):41% andAndean Region (Sierra):41% and Amazonian Region: 34%Amazonian Region: 34% Population (million inhabitants) National Deficit WaterSanitation Urban3.66.3 Rural3.36.2 Total6.912.5 National Context “ the conventional system was never adapted to the flooded areas and small communities of our national territory”
National Context For 2025 the fresh water crisis will not affect only countries such as Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Nigeria but also Peru For 2025 the fresh water crisis will not affect only countries such as Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Nigeria but also Peru The tendency of the new settlements in the main cities of Peru is to be located in regions with lack or difficult access to main services
Polluting practices are prevalent in the cities of Peru Polluting practices are prevalent in the cities of Peru The amount of wastewater discharged daily in Lima is twice the volume of the National Stadium of this city. (Garrido Leca, 2007)
In CENCA, we believe that : “the conventional system of sanitation (flushing and discharging) is suffering a crisis in the world ” For that reason, since 1997 we promote : For that reason, since 1997 we promote :
“a new paradigm of sustainable water services and sanitation management in the city”
ECOSAN point of view Avoid pollution Collect, sanitize and reuse the residues generated in the sanitation process Optimize the nutrients and the water resources management
THE ECODESS: MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH ECOLOGICAL APPROACH THE ECODESS: MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH ECOLOGICAL APPROACH
Intervention modality of ECODESS Plan, design and implementation: Management committees: awareness, management of the project, beneficiaries selection, and participative design, Coordination with institutions working in the field: users training, labor personal Participative design of the household and location of the Dry Ecological Toilet Sanitation networks and treatment design
Intervention modality of ECODESS A participatory and promotional approach, An educational approach to develop capacities and a process of cultural acceptance, Institutional management strengthening of AGUA NIEVERIA organization
HOUSEHOLD SUBSYSTEM COMMUNITY SUBSYSTEM Technological Components
Organizing and Management component Which supports the water and ecological sanitation management. A management committee is responsible for the administration, maintenance and control of the system,
Economic component Since 2007, Nieveria applies the concept “Productive Eco-sanitation”, promoting economic activities from local micro-businesses related to the supplies and products of ECOSAN Since 2007, Nieveria applies the concept “Productive Eco-sanitation”, promoting economic activities from local micro-businesses related to the supplies and products of ECOSAN Technical support about ECOSAN Production of supplies as dryer material, spares and accessories Collecting treated dry excretes and urine from dwellings or collection centers to be carried to storage and processing plants or Eco-stations Maintenance of the neighborhood and home system of the ecological bathrooms, fat-catching chamber and bio- filter. Commercialization and use of recycled products as the dryer material.
Validation of the ECODESS with the support of “Fondo de las Americas”, “Water and Sanitation Program” of The World Bank (WSP- WB) and the Environment Office of the “Ministerio de Vivienda, Construcción y Saneamiento-Perú” (MVCS. Interinstitutional Consultative Committee of ECODESS, constituted by: MVCS, “Fondo de las Americas”, WSP- WB, CENCA, Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Molina-Perú, “Dirección General de Salud Ambiental” (DIGESA), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), “Servicio de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de Lima” (SEDAPAL) and Asociacion Agua Niveria. MVCS, “Fondo de las Americas”, WSP- WB, CENCA, Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Molina-Perú, “Dirección General de Salud Ambiental” (DIGESA), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), “Servicio de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de Lima” (SEDAPAL) and Asociacion Agua Niveria. This committee is editing a guide of the ECODESS and subsequently, proposes politics for a national intervention with this approach. This committee is editing a guide of the ECODESS and subsequently, proposes politics for a national intervention with this approach.
Advantages In the neighborhood An environmental awareness is promoted in the user, elevates the dignity of the families. This service save the water resource in comparison with the conventional system of hydraulic dragging. The family can save $6.00 dollars by month. Environmentally, it reduces 5m3 of black water production by month/family. Approximately, the production of 4m3 of gray water is treated monthly to be used in irrigation. On the other hand, in a periurban or rural area, it avoids monthly that a ton of excretes would be thrown in the public way from almost 100 families.
Physical-chemical analysis of the material of the dry ecological toilet The values are similar to the soil or the prepared dryer material; it indicates a high decomposition of the excretes. high decomposition of the excretes. The application of lime in the dryer mixture had as a result a great increment of the PH in the residue, with values over 9, which could be appreciated 6 months after the accumulation of excretes had finalized; the pH diminishes in the following months. The time of ripening of the waste from the dry ecological toilet affects the electric conductivity of the material is incremented by the greater degree of minerals in the organic residue (Universidad Nacional la Molina).
Micro-biological analysis The micro-biological analysis of the treated waste samples shows low values of coliforms, as well Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The values found were lower than the detection limit with the “Most Probable Number” method (MPN) for every ripening period sampled since 6 to 12 months. The value 4.5 coliforms/ 100 g of material was found only for the material stored by 6 months in the chambers, nevertheless this value is also low.
Micro-biological analysis Protozoa’s population were not detected in the treated waste samples from the dry ecological toiled at any time of the residue ripening; it indicates that eggs and microbial cysts are not viable after three months of the residue ripening. This would confirm the effect of drying with the application of lime in the dryer mixture, which causes the death of the parasites inside the chamber. These results indicate that the dry ecological toilet, provides an efficient alternative to eliminate contaminants faeces excretes; it produces an inert residue, biologically stable, with low organic content and without presence of pathogenic bacteria, neither other intestinal parasites.
Recommendations The combination of dry land and lime in the dryer mixture in proportion 3:1 seems to be the most recommendable mixture to avoid the calcium carbonate excess. According to the results obtained, a 6 months ripening period seems to be sufficient to reach the objective of decomposition of excretes and sanitation of the residue inside the ecological toilets; nevertheless, a six months period is recommended for the total neutralization of the lime in the treated waste and the reduction of the pH to adequate levels to recycle. The chemical, physical and micro-biological characteristics of the treated waste from the ecological toilet are not appropriate to recycle like compost. The treated waste can be used as inert material in the following cases: In the preparation of a new dryer mixture; the treated waste, previously shattered and sifted, can be used instead of soil, mixed with lime to get dryer material. Although, subsequent studies should be made to evaluate the calcium carbonate accumulation effect in the manipulation of the mixture, subsequently. In the preparation of a new dryer mixture; the treated waste, previously shattered and sifted, can be used instead of soil, mixed with lime to get dryer material. Although, subsequent studies should be made to evaluate the calcium carbonate accumulation effect in the manipulation of the mixture, subsequently.
Collecting and cleaning of the camber At the beginning, this service had a monthly cost. Nevertheless, it was not accepted by users. People in Peru do not accept this cost by sanitation yet. Another alternative: The cost of the service would be included in the cost of the dryer material. It means that by each 10 product of 10 kilograms, “Agua Nieveria” would offer the service of cleaning and maintenance of the ecological toilets.
Preparación y comercialización del material secante There are two products on sale; the first one with a soil and lime mixture; and the second one, a soil and recycled material mixture. The cost is $US. 2.2 for 10 Kg.
ECOSAN in Peru Since 1997 CENCA has developed the ECOSAN approaches in its projects; through the AGUAECOSANPERU Program based on a work of promotion, dissemination, advice and training. It has impacted in different institutions. Construction of 275 emergency ecological toilets in Pisco city, with the support of OXFAM. Construction of 150 Dry Ecological toilets in San Benito village, Chincha city, with the support of “Red Uniendo Manos Perú” Nowadays, we are doing the installation of accessories to 24 ecological toilets in the dwellings built by the “Architectes de l´urgence” in a suburb of Ica.
Advantages In the national environment It is a sustainable sanitation system that responds the demand for sanitation. It contributes with an irrigation alternative to reduce the great deficit of green areas and fresh water. Economically ECODESS would reduce 40% of investment direct cost in comparison with a conventional system (from 700 $us to 375 $us). The system is feasible to apply in emergency and risk zones. The proposal would help to solve the problem of sustainability of 4,000 JASS that operate in all the country and that have more than 8 million users. Public and private Institutions execute projects with focus ECOSAN and apply the ECODESS or its component with our advice, services or purchase of accessories
The ECODESS has received the “Ecoeficiencia” award offered by the GROUP of the “Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú” There are approximately 2,000 dry ecological toilets built in Peru. CENCA has collaborated direct and indirectly (Caritas, FCH, PUCP, Suco, Salud Sin límites Perú, Municipalidad de Sechura, Yachachiq Solcode, Ecociudad, IPES) The Sustainable Sanitation Network of Peru is working with 10 organizations with ECOSAN approach. ECOSAN in Peru
Recommendations To incorporate in the “Building National Regulation”, management alternative systems to promote the Sustainable Sanitation. To promote the change of user attitudes in order to contribute with the rational use of the water, creating awareness to avoid consumerism and to generate a new culture of the water use. To promote the decentralization of the sewage processing, especially of the gray water. Monitoring phase is a key point in the process.
Challenges It is important to do reforms that promote a change in the sanitation paradigm of the 21st century. Some challenges are: It is important to do reforms that promote a change in the sanitation paradigm of the 21st century. Some challenges are: To fortify a decentralized and sustainable management of the service, that promotes the self-management of the service in suburbs and promotes water and sanitation micro-business. To promote a multidisciplinary management of the services; Formation of professionals with a sustainable vision of the water and sanitation services. To develop the PRODUCTIVE ECO- SANITATION with a market of nutrients from the residues of the ecological sanitation.
¡¡ Thanks¡¡ JUAN CARLOS CALIZAYA LUNA Social Entrepreneur ASHOKA Social Entrepreneur ASHOKA Partner AVINA Partner AVINA Director of the Program AGUAECOSANPERU Director of the Program AGUAECOSANPERU CENCA CENCA Partner of Ecosanlac Partner of Ecosanlac Coronel Zegarra 426, Jesus María -Lima 11/Lima / Peru Coronel Zegarra 426, Jesus María -Lima 11/Lima / Peru Phno: (511) 471- 2034 / 421- 5866 / 472-7499 Phno: (511) 471- 2034 / 421- 5866 / 472-7499 Cell: (511) 9903-20877 Cell: (511) 9903-20877 E- mail: email@example.com E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@hotmail.com