Presentation on theme: "Managing the Urban world. How should I revise? Split the units in different sections Understand and know how to define the key terms Have detail in your."— Presentation transcript:
How should I revise? Split the units in different sections Understand and know how to define the key terms Have detail in your knowledge of case studies Tackle questions – practice marking each other’s responses. Use pages 202-204 from textbook
Common themes.. Urban issues in both LEDC and MEDC Poverty – How to reduce inequality Housing – How the quality of housing can be improved Hazards – How hazards affect lives in both MEDCs and LEDCs Traffic – Managing and reducing congestion Urban living in the future – sustainability in the 21 st century
Unit 1 Key terms Megacity Urbanisation Urban sprawl Suburbs Floodplain Dereliction Mixed use Redevelopment Commuters Integrated transport system Biofuel Slums Brownfield / greenfield Carbon zero Urban regeneration Eco-homes / towns Urban heat island
Living in an urban world Hazards in urban areasRegeneration and redevelopment Urban issues in LEDCsSustainable urban development
Living in an ever increasingly urban world What are the global patterns? What is the link between urbanisation and economic growth? Which countries are driving this move to an increasingly urban world?
Describe the levels of urban living around the World. (4)
What are the problems resulting from living in an urban world? Key case study = China 2008 – 16/20 most polluted cities were found in china. Especially chongqing – see notes re. number of high rise buildings. A landfill opened in 2003 already is filled with more than a million tonnes of rubbish. World Health Org. says that lack of safe water and proper sanitation accounts for 12% child deaths in developing countries.
Coping with growth in cities in LEDCs By 2030 1 in 3 people will be living in slums Africa has fastest growth – kibera Asia has greatest number = 600 million Challenges = providing adequate housing and services for urban poor Mumbai Population 15 million Half of population live in slums – pavement dwellers. Dharavi. Nairobi – capital of Kenya. 60% live in slums. Disease rife, crime, lack of safety. BUT! How can urban growth create opportunities for development? Step to better life / Water / education health more accessible / jobs
Schemes to get people out of slums COHAB – Curitiba housing programme ‘homes not shelters’ Self help schemes NGOs – wateraid, oxfam, clintonfoundation Rubbish collection in Dar es Salaam http://www.2point6billion.com/news/2010/05/11/un-india- and-china-massively-improving-slums-5625.htmlhttp://www.2point6billion.com/news/2010/05/11/un-india- and-china-massively-improving-slums-5625.html Poor sanitation in Dhaka Bangladesh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TY3p0SZhPFA&featur e=relmfuhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TY3p0SZhPFA&featur e=relmfu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skgZD_Bs5r4&feature =pyv&ad=8423691477&kw=slumshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skgZD_Bs5r4&feature =pyv&ad=8423691477&kw=slums
Natural hazards in urban areas Los Angeles – why is it known as a multi hazard city? Why are towns / cities vulnerable to flooding? What is the Thames region flood management plan? 1) Planning – reduce building on floodplains 2) Increase river corridors / open space (sustainable approach) 3) Use existing floodplains better 4) Flood defences
Mudslides in Brazil If confirmed, the deaths would raise the toll sharply from the 153 people already known to have died this week in slides triggered by record rains. A government official said as many as 60 houses and at least 200 people were buried in the Morro Bumba slum in Niteroi. "In our experience, it's an instant death" for those caught in their homes at the time, the official said. The shanty town was built on a mountain of trash that accumulated for decades, making the ground unstable and vulnerable to giving way. In the worst flash floods in the city for more than 40 years, 11in (28cm) of rain fell in a 24-hour period triggering deadly mudslides across the city's metropolitan area. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12185517
Urbanisation leading to Pollution Instant high rise building http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia- 18066615http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia- 18066615 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- 1DNjJd2YfAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- 1DNjJd2YfA How Hong Kong is being affected by pollution in SE china http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business- 14042293http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business- 14042293
How has the quality of living been improved in this urban environment? (4)
Medcs – reducing deprivation and improving quality of life WHO – a child living in one suburb in Glasgow can expect to live 28 years less than a child born 13km away. How can deprives areas be improved? 1)Measuring problems in area 2)Improving housing 3)Building community spirit. Examples Watcombe – Devon. A poor housing estate has had central heating upgraded, ventilation, insulation installed. Health and well- being improved. Hackney – better street lighting, green space, community centres built, low level flats
Reducing deprivation in urban areas in the UK Better housing Space Green areas / parks Better infrastructure / train networks eg DLR Better lighting
Nightingale estate – How? Taken from builders website (Higgins) Resident liaison therefore was a key factor in this success three smaller blocks of 124 flats. The architect also visited every household to discuss their needs and preferences for fittings and finishes. Stylish private balconies Combination boilers replaced the original heating system inside, while existing wall cavities were insulated. Passenger lifts were also replaced. Security was improved by CCTV cameras in the entrances and lifts, linked to an entry-phone system that can also be monitored by an off-site concierge.
Urban redevelopment – its all about Brindleyplace!
Part of a bigger regeneration project - birmingham The Mailbox – shopping centre £550 million for New Street station £35 million development of city hospital Bullring shopping centre – 35 million visitors a year Mixed use development
Managing movement – integrated transport system. 80% journeys made by car Congestion – ¼ all roads in UK are congested every day Pollution Business costs - £24 billion loss to business every year. Curitiba – Know the methods implemented. Results? 1.3 million passengers every day 80% of all commuters use buses 30 million fewer car trips a year Cleaner environment Cambridge guided busway (CGB) Plus points Links villages to city Reduces need for cars Fast service in Cambridge – 10 mins Re-using old train line – less land required Wi-fi Negatives Is it open yet? Cost = £116 million Engineering problems
Sustainable living Energy, waste, transport, environment, homes, work. All factors to be considered to meet sustainable goal. Examples: Greenhouse development – Leeds former industrial building now carbon zero development. (mixed use) Bedzed – Sutton (south london) China – Chongming island
Ecotowns Use an example to know what the development is like; where / how What are the arguments surrounding their development? NIMBYISM
Exam practice Why are urban populations in LEDCs growing rapidly? (4) Describe the environmental problems caused by urban growth. Use an example. (6 marks) Describe the problems that natural hazards cause in urban areas. (6) Explain how the effects of natural hazards in urban areas can be reduced. (6) Explain how urban redevelopment projects can improve socio-economic conditions and environmental conditions. (8)
Describe the environmental problems caused by urban growth. Use an example(s) you have studied. (6) Explain how urban redevelopment projects can create socio-economic opportunities. Use an example(s) you have studied. (6)