2Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean England London expanded greatly as a cityPeople moved in from rural areas and from other European countriesBusy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmenStrict class systemNot a clean or safe city—“The Thames was a beautiful sewer” (224) and disease and criminals ran rampantGrew into substantial port and admired European citySouthwark: suburb known for its “vice” – theaters, gaming, prostitution, etc.
4Renaissance = rebirth Rebirth of: interest in learning, especially that of ancient Greece and Romecivilization in generalarts and sciencesReaction to “Dark Ages” of medieval Europe
5Historically speaking… UK represent!Exploration by sea: John Cabot, 1497Religious rifts:New sense of nationalism prompted many to question ethics in and teachings of ChurchQuestioning of Papal authority and ScriptureErasmus (Dutch) – version of New TestamentThomas More – UtopiaProtestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther’s 95 theses
6The Monarchy: strengthening themselves and the nation Henry VII: CatholicRestorer of national economy and prestige ofmonarchyHenry VIII:Catholic, at first…Supports Pope against religious dissenters (“Defender ofthe Faith”)But…Church’s refusal to annul his marriage leads him to break from Catholic faithDissolves Church ownership of property, monasteriesHas Thomas More executed for refusing to renounce Catholic faithMarries 6 timesFathers Elizabeth and Mary; has a son, Edward, with his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour
7And I could use a drink. Make it a…hmm… More bangin’ Tudor action…Edward, Henry VIII’s son, rules from the ages of 9-15 (whatever; that’s like a 7th grader ruling your country)Parliament drastically changes religious practicesEnglish replaces LatinBook of Common Prayer required in public worshipEngland is on its way to becoming a Protestant nation until…We’re back, baby!Mary I takes throneRestores Roman practices to Church of EnglandRestores authority of Pope over English ChurchKnown as “Bloody Mary” for ordering execution of about 300 ProtestantsAnd I could use a drink. Make it a…hmm…Mary rules for 5 years, and then…
8(literally and figuratively) Cate Blanchett Elizabeth I takes the throne!Classically educated; patron of the artsReinstated monarch’s rule over Church of England, ending religious turmoilEstablished climate of religious compromiseKnown as one of the best rulers in English historySpoiler alert! Dies in 1603Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for the Elizabethan period…Elizabeth… arrgh…The Mary Stuart problem:Catholics considered Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, rightful heir to throne of England (marriage annulment issues)Imprisoned by cousin, Elizabeth, for 18 yearsHatched numerous Catholic plots against herElizabeth let her live, punished CatholicsParliament insisted on beheading Mary in 1587I rule!(literally and figuratively)
9Life after Elizabeth…the Stuarts James I (well, James VI of Scotland, but James I of England)Son of Mary StuartNamed by Elizabeth as her successorProtestant“Jacobean” era (from Latin for James)Expanded England’s position as world power (colony in VA)Believed in “divine right” of monarchsPower struggles with ParliamentPersecuted Puritans (who migrated to Plymouth Colony)Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Jamestown…Smell you later, Jimmy!I may have divine right, but this outfit is just wrong…
10Renaissance Poetry Lyric over narrative poetry Sonnets! Yeah! Finally, the good stuff…Renaissance PoetryLyric over narrative poetryPsst! Lyric poem: a short poem with one speaker (not necessarily the poet) who expresses thought and feeling.Sonnets! Yeah!Sonnet cycle: A series of sonnets, usually fit loosely together to form a storyHeavy hitters: Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, ShakespeareTwo major rhyme schemes: Petrarchan/Italian and ShakespeareanShakespearean rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, ggPsst! Sonnet: 14 lines, iambic pentameter, various rhyme schemes. Word!Many sonnets consist of 8 lines setting up one idea, 4 lines responding to that idea, and a concluding couplet at the end. Rock and roll!
11Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Raleigh, NC… Pastoral poetryIdealized rustic simplicity of rural lifeHeavy hitters: Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter RaleighI’m a poet, soldier, explorer, historian and member of the Royal Court. Phew! It’s tiring being a true Renaissance man!Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Raleigh, NC…
12And I might have gotten credit for stuff you wrote! Too bad, suckah! Renaissance DramaTurned away from religious focus and toward classical Greek and Roman tragedies and dramasChristopher Marlowe: First major dramatist(1580s)Shakespeare ( )Started as actorFamous playwright by 159237 Plays: most can be categorized as tragedy, comedy, or historyDeep understanding of what it means to be human helps maintain popularityPeople say that if I’d lived past 30 I might have eclipsed Shakespeare as England’s greatest playwright! Dang!And I might have gotten credit for stuff you wrote! Too bad, suckah!
13Renaissance Prose Not as popular as poetry Heavy hitters: Which is the more satisfying bacon: pioneering English author or tasty breakfast meat?Not as popular as poetryHeavy hitters:Sidney, Raleigh and Thomas NasheSir Francis Bacon: essays, science, philosophyKing James BibleTranslated Latin Bible into EnglishHuge achievement—probably most important in English Renaissance54 scholars worked 7 years!Influential, used to this day
14Important Dates 1485: Thomas More publishes Utopia 1534: Church of England established1535: Thomas More executed1549: The Book of Common Prayer issued1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen1563: 20,000 Londoners die in Plague1564: Shakespeare is born!
15Important Dates (Cont.) 1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet1599: The Globe Theater opens1603: Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I becomes King of England.1606: Guy Fawkes executed for Gunpowder Plot1607: Royal Colony of Jamestown established1611: King James Bible published1620: Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock1625: King James I dies.