Presentation on theme: "The English Renaissance: Celebrating Humanity 1485-1625."— Presentation transcript:
The English Renaissance: Celebrating Humanity
Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean England London expanded greatly as a city People moved in from rural areas and from other European countries Strict class system Busy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmen Not a clean or safe city—“The Thames was a beautiful sewer” (224) and disease and criminals ran rampant Southwark: suburb known for its “vice” – theaters, gaming, prostitution, etc. Grew into substantial port and admired European city
Renaissance = rebirth Rebirth of: interest in learning, especially that of ancient Greece and Rome civilization in general arts and sciences Reaction to “Dark Ages” of medieval Europe
Historically speaking… Exploration by sea: John Cabot, 1497 UK represent! Religious rifts: New sense of nationalism prompted many to question ethics in and teachings of Church Erasmus (Dutch) – version of New Testament Thomas More – Utopia Protestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther’s 95 theses Questioning of Papal authority and Scripture
The Monarchy: strengthening themselves and the nation Henry VII: CatholicCatholic Restorer of national economy and prestige ofRestorer of national economy and prestige ofmonarchy Henry VIII: Catholic, at first…Catholic, at first… Supports Pope against religious dissenters (“Defender ofSupports Pope against religious dissenters (“Defender of the Faith”) But… Church’s refusal to annul his marriage leads him to break from Catholic faithChurch’s refusal to annul his marriage leads him to break from Catholic faith Dissolves Church ownership of property, monasteriesDissolves Church ownership of property, monasteries Has Thomas More executed for refusing to renounce Catholic faithHas Thomas More executed for refusing to renounce Catholic faith Marries 6 timesMarries 6 times Fathers Elizabeth and Mary; has a son, Edward, with his 3rd wife, Jane SeymourFathers Elizabeth and Mary; has a son, Edward, with his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour
More bangin’ Tudor action… Edward, Henry VIII’s son, rules from the ages of 9-15 (whatever; that’s like a 7 th grader ruling your country) Parliament drastically changes religious practices English replaces Latin Book of Common Prayer required in public worship England is on its way to becoming a Protestant nation until… We’re back, baby! Mary I takes throne Restores Roman practices to Church of England Restores authority of Pope over English Church Known as “Bloody Mary” for ordering execution of about 300 Protestants And I could use a drink. Make it a…hmm… Mary rules for 5 years, and then…
Cate Blanchett Elizabeth I takes the throne! Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for the Elizabethan period… Classically educated; patron of the arts Reinstated monarch’s rule over Church of England, ending religious turmoil Established climate of religious compromise Known as one of the best rulers in English history Spoiler alert! Dies in 1603 I rule! (literally and figuratively) The Mary Stuart problem: Catholics considered Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, rightful heir to throne of England (marriage annulment issues) Imprisoned by cousin, Elizabeth, for 18 years Hatched numerous Catholic plots against her Elizabeth let her live, punished Catholics Parliament insisted on beheading Mary in 1587 Elizabeth… arrgh…
Life after Elizabeth… the Stuarts Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Jamestown… James I (well, James VI of Scotland, but James I of England) Son of Mary Stuart Named by Elizabeth as her successor Protestant “Jacobean” era (from Latin for James) Expanded England’s position as world power (colony in VA) Believed in “divine right” of monarchs Power struggles with Parliament Persecuted Puritans (who migrated to Plymouth Colony) Smell you later, Jimmy! I may have divine right, but this outfit is just wrong…
Sonnet cycle: A series of sonnets, usually fit loosely together to form a story Sonnet cycle: A series of sonnets, usually fit loosely together to form a story Heavy hitters: Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Shakespeare Heavy hitters: Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Shakespeare Two major rhyme schemes: Petrarchan/Italian and Shakespearean Two major rhyme schemes: Petrarchan/Italian and Shakespearean Shakespearean rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg Shakespearean rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg Finally, the good stuff… Lyric over narrative poetry Psst! Lyric poem: a short poem with one speaker (not necessarily the poet) who expresses thought and feeling. Sonnets! Yeah! Psst! Sonnet: 14 lines, iambic pentameter, various rhyme schemes. Word! Many sonnets consist of 8 lines setting up one idea, 4 lines responding to that idea, and a concluding couplet at the end. Rock and roll! Renaissance Poetry
Pastoral poetry Idealized rustic simplicity of rural life Heavy hitters: Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter Raleigh Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Raleigh, NC… I’m a poet, soldier, explorer, historian and member of the Royal Court. Phew! It’s tiring being a true Renaissance man!
Turned away from religious focus and toward classical Greek and Roman tragedies and dramas Christopher Marlowe: First major dramatist (1580s) Shakespeare ( ) People say that if I’d lived past 30 I might have eclipsed Shakespeare as England’s greatest playwright! Dang! Started as actorStarted as actor Famous playwright by 1592Famous playwright by Plays: most can be categorized as tragedy, comedy, or history37 Plays: most can be categorized as tragedy, comedy, or history Deep understanding of what it means to be human helps maintain popularityDeep understanding of what it means to be human helps maintain popularity And I might have gotten credit for stuff you wrote! Too bad, suckah! Renaissance Drama
Not as popular as poetry Heavy hitters: Sidney, Raleigh and Thomas Nashe Sir Francis Bacon: essays, science, philosophy Which is the more satisfying bacon: pioneering English author or tasty breakfast meat? King James Bible Translated Latin Bible into English Huge achievement—probably most important in English Renaissance 54 scholars worked 7 years! Influential, used to this day Renaissance Prose
Important Dates 1485: Thomas More publishes Utopia 1485: Thomas More publishes Utopia 1534: Church of England established 1534: Church of England established 1535: Thomas More executed 1535: Thomas More executed 1549: The Book of Common Prayer issued 1549: The Book of Common Prayer issued 1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen 1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen 1563: 20,000 Londoners die in Plague 1563: 20,000 Londoners die in Plague 1564: Shakespeare is born! 1564: Shakespeare is born!
Important Dates (Cont.) 1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet 1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet 1599: The Globe Theater opens 1599: The Globe Theater opens 1603: Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I becomes King of England. 1603: Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I becomes King of England. 1606: Guy Fawkes executed for Gunpowder Plot 1606: Guy Fawkes executed for Gunpowder Plot 1607: Royal Colony of Jamestown established 1607: Royal Colony of Jamestown established 1611: King James Bible published 1611: King James Bible published 1620: Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock 1620: Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock 1625: King James I dies. 1625: King James I dies.