Presentation on theme: "WJEC AS Geography Unit GG2 GENERALISATION B: Aspects of rural change Counter-urbanisation is characterised by a shift of people and employment from metropolitan."— Presentation transcript:
WJEC AS Geography Unit GG2 GENERALISATION B: Aspects of rural change Counter-urbanisation is characterised by a shift of people and employment from metropolitan to non- metropolitan areas. Rural-urban distinction becoming blurred. Causes of population and employment growth in one non-metropolitan region. Within one rural area, nature and extent of changes in population and employment vary in relation to accessibility to urban centre, scenic quality and planning decisions.
Counter-urbanisation of Cardiff Cardiff docks reached their peak in 1913 exporting 13.5 million tonnes of coal. This dropped rapidly after WWII. Coupled with the closure of the East Moor Steelworks unemployment rose. Low income, racial prejudice and ageing housing stock lead to the bay area becoming a Zone of Discard. By the 1970’s and early 1980’s the outward movement from the Bay area lead to the suburbanisation at the urban-rural fringe. Beyond the fringe, in accessible, attractive rural settlements, these urban “refugees” bought homes and became commuters. Suburbanised villages emerged.
Suburbanisation of Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan Llantwit Major has seen significant suburbanisation since the 1970’s. this corresponds with an era of counter-urbanisation in the nearby Capital city. It is possible to identify the original core on an O.S. map by:- O.S. map The convergence of original roads and lanes Historic building such as churches and ruins The more formal layout of roads and housing in the modern suburbs.
Historic Buildings in the original village core. St. Illtuds churchRuined Manor house, Llantwit Place http://www.llantwit-major.net/2004/history.shtmwww.llantwit-major.net/2004/history.shtm
Why did the commuters come to Llantwit Major Census data since 1961 shows a steady increase in the percentage of people employed in management and professional roles. These commuters chose Llantwit Major probably because of its: 1.Accessibility to Cardiff thanks to the A48 and M4. Bridgend and Cowbridge are easy to get to. 2.Good range of services including schools, retailing, health and leisure. 3.Availability of new housing and renovated character properties. 4.Attractive townscape and local environment. Llantwit Major is only 1 mile from the Glamorgan Heritage Coast and has many sites of historic interest.
1.Accessibility By clicking the link below it may be possible to determine the travelling times to nearby towns and cities. http://rp.rac.co.uk/routeplanner
2. Services and facilities Llantwit Major now boasts: A Leisure Centre Two Supermarkets Several Primary and a Comprehensive Schools A Doctors Surgery Library
3. Available housing Many former barns have been converted since the 1980’s in the old core of Llantwit Major.
3. Available housing Many of today’s most desirable homes have humble origins as the original dwellings of rural people. West Farm Huntsman’s Cottage The Old Malthouse
3. Available housing Expensive, modern, planned estates cater for the majority of newcomers to Llantwit Major.
4. Attractive local environment
Suburbanisation in other areas of the Vale of Glamorgan Cowbridge is actually more accessible and arguably has a better townscape than Llantwit. But reduced housing availability has restricted growth. St. Donats just to west of Llantwit has not grown significantly because of poorer access, less services and restricted housing availability. St. Athan’s military reputation and closeness to heavy industry has perhaps made this less attractive to commuters. St. Hilary has all the necessary qualities commuters desire but strict planning controls on housing development has limited its growth.
Sketch Map of Vale of Glamorgan Commuter Settlements Bridgend Cardiff Barry Llantwit Major Cowbridge St. Athan St. Hilary St. Donats B4265 B4270 A48 Llandow Industrial Estate
Increasing employment opportunities near Llantwit Major Llandow Industrial Estate is approximately 3 km north of Llantwit Major and provides increasing numbers of employment opportunities for the Vale of Glamorgan. It is built on a Brownfield site utilizing roads and hangars from a WWII air base. It comprises of a trading, business and retail units.
Llandow Trading Estate This shows the former air traffic control tower converted to the site office.
Llandow Business Park The large Weaver’s Ford dealership can be seen in the background
Llandow Retail Estate This shows one of the several air craft hangars that has been converted to business use at Llandow Industrial Estate
Attraction of Llandow Industrial Estate for businesses Access is good. The A48 is 3 km away which then allows good access to the M4 corridor. Brownfield site status means planning controls are more relaxed and land is probably cheaper compared to urban locations. A large pool of labour and is accessible in nearby Llantwit Major and Cowbridge. Its rural location provides a more pleasant working environment. Essential services are already in place.
Summary This case study should enable students to see that:- Suburbanisation leads to rural settlements taking on more urban characteristics (e.g. sprawl, pollution, industry). The nature and extent of suburbanisation depends on four main characteristics. Llantwit Major possess them all. Rural locations like the Vale of Glamorgan are becoming increasingly attractive for business.