Presentation on theme: "Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Mega Cities:"— Presentation transcript:
1Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Mega Cities: Great CitiesAsia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-KyotoMega Cities:UN says by 2025 at least 15 cities will be over 20 millionMany of the world’s most populous cities are found in the poorest nations-Mexico City, Shanghai, Calcutta, Mumbai & CairoClose are Bangkok, Indonesia; Lima-Callao, Peru; Saigon-Cholon, VietnamMexico City, Sao Paulo and Shanghai will have over 30 million by 2025
2Pull FactorsPull factors often more imaginary that real-esp. in less developed areas.1990s Africa had the fastest growing cities in the world-followed by South Asia, East Asia, South and Middle America.Cities of North America, Southern South America, Australia grew more slowlyWestern Europe’s cities grew very little if at all.New York was the world’s largest city for many years-now overtaken by Tokyo-Mexico City will overtake Tokyo-by 2025 NYC will not be in top 10.
3Urban Problems Zoning laws are lacking in many poor countries Squatters occupy any open space on the outskirts of the citySharp contrast between fancy hotels of downtown and slums on outskirtsCairo for example-paved streets give way to dusty alleys, tenements, traffic, garbage & 12.5 m. people bursting at the seamsFavela of Rio de Janeiro with dualism of peripheral metropolises-shanty town on hillside overlooks the luxury apartments near the famous Ipanema Beach
4Many cities in developing nations are growing at a rapid rate with many new arrivals each day. Unofficial suburbs such as this favela of Rio de Janeiro are poor and often lack basic services. (Disamenity sector)Clinging to a hillside, this neighborhood often suffers fatal landslides during heavy rains.Barail-a majority of the wealth is controlled by only 10% of the people.About 25 million Brazilians live in slums
5Rank-Size Rule The larger the city-the fewer there are- Model indicates that the population of a city or town in inversely proportional (the fraction) to its rank in the hierarchyIf largest city is 12 million then 2nd largest is 6 m. (1/2) 3rd largest is 4 m. (2/3) 4th largest is 3 m. or (3/4) 10th largest is 1.2 millionRank-Size Rule doesNot apply to primateCities such as Paris,Mexico City and soforthTokyo-Shinkuju District-Tokyo now has 28 m.& stretches 45 miles-the world’s largest urban center.Note the fraction bottom number gets larger-hence the reverse proportion.If time permits-Hand out Road Atlas and look at Iowa or another Great Plains state where the rank size rule holds trueRank-Size Rule:in a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. For example:largest city = 12 million2nd largest = 6 million3rd largest = 4 million4th largest = 3 million
6Urban Function Every city or town has an economic base. Basic sector-workers who produce goods for export or local consumptionNon Basic sector or Service sector-workers who maintain the city, work in offices and provide services for othersThe number of Non basic sector workers is always greater than Basic sector workers-as cities increase in size the ratio increasesMost large cities have a ratio of 1 to 2Multiplier Effect-if a business adds 50 manufacturing jobs-another 100 non-basic workers will be added to the work forceMultiplier Effect can also work in reverse-when Basic Sector jobs are lost-many more Non Basic sector jobs are lost as well
7Functional Specialization A dominant service or industry was found in many cities during the Industrial Revolution.Chauncy Harris wrote “A Functional Classification of Cities in the United States” in 1943-in it he described the concentration of manufacturing cities in the Northeast with functional specialization and the wide diversity of western cities with no dominant functione.g. Detroit-automobiles, Pittsburgh-steelLas Vegas and Atlantic City gamblingLeadville, Colorado-miningVero Beach, Florida-resortsTrend today is toward diversity-especially in the Rustbelt.
8Central Place TheoryCentral Places-hierarchy is based on population, function & services.Economic reach-how functions & services attract customers from areas beyond the urban limits.Centrality-the central position & ability to attract customers to a village, town or city.Range of Sale-the distance people are willing to travel to buy goods or servicesAs transportation improvements made longer trips for services possible and practical, many small hamlets, villages and towns declined in North America for example.
9Central Place TheoryChristaller tried to determine the degree of centrality of various places.He created a model to show how central places in the urban hierarchy are spatially distributed.He assumed:No physical barriersSoil and surface of equal qualityEven distribution of populationUniform transportation systemAlthough no area on earth is isotropic (same in all directions) Christaller’s model has proven useful in planning new cities-in polder land in the Netherlands, Brazil’s Amazonia development
10Hexagonal Hinterlands Christaller’s urban model showed that each central place had a complementary hinterland.The hexagonal model solves the overlap problem that circles would have.Nesting arrangement-region within a region-each larger complementary region is centered on a higher order urban placeBlack lines=hamlet hinterlandRed lines=village hinterlandBlue lines=town hinterlandGreen lines=city hinterlandChristaller’s model confirmed that the general map pattern is not an accident, but the function of specific economic forces that create a regular rank-size pattern
11Central Business District Downtown-the core of the city with high-rise skyscrapers, heavy traffic, production, education, services etc.The CBD is the urban area of commercial & industrial zones within a ring of residential areas.Suburb-an outlying residential area of the urban region that is most pronounced in the USResidential areas of Chicago in 1920 were used as basis for many studies and models of the city. Compare this pattern with the Concentric Zone and Sector ModelsBecause of the 1871 Fire-Chicago exhibited a more pronounced social patterning than existed in other large older citiesChicago became segregated with rings of rising affluence.Yet wealthy continue to monopolize the “Gold Coast and other parts of the cityBurgess accounted or this by stating the rich tended to monopolize hills, lakes, and shorelinesZoning established parks and public areas along the Lake Michigan shore (Burnham Plan that prevented industrial development along the Lake
12Bid RentThe price paid to rent or purchase urban land is a reflection of its utility or usefulness.Utility is a product of accessibility to customers & workers or for residents to jobs and amenities.Poorest households occupy the more accessible locations near city centers in the US and the wealthiest live in the farthest suburbs-in most of the world it is the opposite-the wealthiest live near the city center and the poorest live in slums, favelas or barrios on the outskirts of the city.
13Modeling the North American City Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess)Sector model (Homer Hoyt)Multiple Nuclei Model(Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)
14Classic Models of Urban Structure Ernest Burgess-1925 Concentric Zone Model based on studies of Chicago.CBD-financial, retail, theater, museums etc.Transition to residential with deterioration-some light industryBlue collar labor housingMiddle class residentialSuburban ringBurgess was a University of Chicago professor of Sociology who studied the culture and urban structure of Chicago.The dynamic inner ring grew and encroached on zones 2 &3Zone 2 transition between CBD & residential with rooming houses, small apartments, tenements for low income, slums & skid row, some ethnic ghettosZone 3 Workingmen’s quarters-ethnic neighborhoods of blue collar immigrant workers who moved out of zone 2 in flats or single family dwellingsZone 4 better middle class housingZone 5 commuter zone of higher income families in suburbs or furthest extent of trolley lines
15Functional ZonationThe division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).Cairo, EgyptCentral city (above)Housing projects (right)
16Classic Models of Urban Structure Homer Hoyt-1939 Sector Model based on studies of 142 US cities.Pie-shaped wedges created by Hoyt compensated for the drawbacks of the Ring ModelLow Rent areas & High Rent areas could extend to the outer edgeTransportation and industrial zones accounted for the sectorsHoyt was an economist who studied housing date for 142 American cities and presented his Sector Model in 1939
17Subsidiary and competing CBDs developed (Edge Cities) Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman Multiple Nuclei Sector Model 1945 showed that CBD is not the sole force in creating land-use patterns.They said that Concentric Rings & Pie-shaped models had drawbacks as CBDs were losing dominanceSubsidiary and competing CBDs developed (Edge Cities)Suburbanization accelerated the change with shopping malls and mass transitThe multiple nuclei model takes into account the various factors of decentralization that are taking place.
18Why Do Inner Cities Still Attract People? Recreational facilitiesOrchestras, theaters and venues for popular music concertsMuseums and art galleriesSport teams and sporting arenasBanks and high finance institutionsUniversities and research facilitiesSpecialized research hospitals and medical specialistsShopping and specialized stores
19Making Cities in the Global Core Redlining – financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods.Blockbusting – realtors purposefully sell a home at a low price to an African American and then solicit white residents to sell their homes at low prices, to generate “white flight.”
20Problems in Urban America 200 years ago only 5% of world was urbanizedToday about 50% is urbanGermany, Spain & Belgium are over 90% urbanWorld wide urban problems are:pollutionpoor sanitationdrugs and crimecongestion and noisesubstandard housing & slums
21Problems in Urban America With urban sprawl and expanding suburbs-inner city shrinksCBD is often reduced to serving just the inner metro areaAs basic sector jobs leave-large cities have shifted to service industriesLoss of tax base as businesses, industries and services leaveUrban decay resultsUnable to fund adequate schools, crime prevention programs, public housing and services-a downward spiral begins.Row houses abandoned in North Philadelphia
22Problems in Urban America New York City a good example:3 million people plus uncounted illegals crowd into 75 to 100 year old apartment buildingsMany buildings are worn out, rat & roach infested with high crime rates, vandalism and cases of spouse & child abuseYet despite the problems there is a sense of community that may be lost if the neighborhood is torn down
23Deglomeration-as globalization and improved communication and transportation have developed-many businesses leave the high costs of downtown since it is no longer an advantage to cluster with other similar businesses-the results are rustbelt cities with urban decay, loss of tax revenue and abandoned propertyAbandoned steel mill in Pennsylvania
24Making Cities in the Global Core Gentrification – individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood.Commercialization – city governments transform a central city to attract residents and tourists. The newly commercialized downtowns often are a stark contrast to the rest of the central city.