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Transport and the Urban Environment Topic 4 – Urban Transportation, Land Use and the Environment A – Urban Land Use and Transportation B – Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Transport and the Urban Environment Topic 4 – Urban Transportation, Land Use and the Environment A – Urban Land Use and Transportation B – Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transport and the Urban Environment Topic 4 – Urban Transportation, Land Use and the Environment A – Urban Land Use and Transportation B – Environmental Impacts of the Transportation / Land Use System C – Case Studies

2 Conditions of Usage n For personal and classroom use only u Excludes any other forms of communication such as conference presentations, published reports and papers. n No modification and redistribution permitted u Cannot be published, in whole or in part, in any form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. n Citation u Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.

3 Urban Land Use and Transportation n 1. The Transportation / Land Use System n 2. Transportation and Urban Form n 3. Transportation and Urban Structure A A

4 Land Use and Transportation n Urban areas are transportation / land use systems u Complex entities with a multitude of functions. u System where locations and spatial accumulation form land uses. u Urban land use: F Expresses the attributes of the urban space. F Attempt to interpret spatial elements and their interrelations. u This system is highly complex and includes several relationships. u Each of them is part of a sub-system including the transport system, spatial interactions and land use. A-1

5 Land Use and Transportation n Conceptual Overview u The relationships between transportation and land use have been investigated for a long time and subject to numerous approaches. u Von Thunen regional land use model. u Burgess concentric land use model. u Sector and nuclei land use patterns. u Land rent theory. A-1

6 Formal and Functional Land Use A-1 Formal Land Use Functional Land Use Bungalows Park Factories Shopping center Apartments Low density residential Leisure Industrial Commercial High density residential

7 The Transport / Land Use System A-1 Spatial Interactions Land UseTransport System Traffic assignment models Transport capacity Economic base theory Location theory Traffic generation and attraction models Spatial interaction models Distance decay parameters Modal split Infrastructures (supply)Friction of SpaceSpatial Accumulation (demand)

8 Von Thunen’s Regional Land Use Model Isolated State Modified Conditions Livestock farming Three-field system Crop framing, fallow and pasture Crop farming without fallow Firewood and lumber production Market gardening and milk production Navigable river Central city A-1

9 IV - Working class zone V - Residential zone VI - Commuter zone I - Loop (downtown) II - Factory zone III - Zone of transition LOOP Little Sicily Apartment Houses Bungalow Section Single Family Dwellings Residential District Ghetto Two Plan Area Second Immigrant Settlement Model Chicago, 1920s Black Belt The Burgess Urban Land Use Model A-1

10 Sector and Nuclei Urban Land Use Representations 2 3 4 4 5 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 CBD 2 Wholesale and light manufacturing 3 Low-class residential 4 Middle-class residential 5 High-class residential 1 2 3 4 5 3 3 6 7 8 9 6 Heavy manufacturing 7 Sub business district 8 Residential suburb 9 Industrial suburb SectorNuclei A-1

11 Theory of Land Rent Rent Distance from downtown Retail Industry/ commercial ApartmentsSingle houses Rent a b c d a Retailing b Industry/commercial c Apartments d Single houses City limits 1 23 a b c d A-1

12 Transportation and Urban Form n Urban form u The form of a city greatly influences and is influenced by travel patterns, origins and destinations. u The dense urban cores of many European, Japanese and Chinese cities enable residents to make 30 to 60 percent of all trips by walking and cycling. u The dispersed urban form of Australian and American cities encourages reliance on the car. u There is a wide variety of urban forms and urban transportation systems. n Impact of the private car u An increasing number of cities worldwide seem to be developing at a scale that increases reliance on the privately owned automobile. u Dispersion is taking place in many different types of cities. A-2

13 RoadHighwayActivity center Type I - Completely Motorized Network A-2

14 Road Highway Activity center Transit line Type II - Weak Center A-2

15 RoadHighwayActivity center Transit line Type III - Strong Center A-2

16 Road Highway Activity center Transit line Type IV - Traffic Limitation A-2

17 Transportation and Urban Form n Major changes u The central business district (CBD): F Once the primary destination of commuters. F Serviced by public transportation. F Rendered obsolete by changing manufacturing, retailing and management practices. u Activities F Traditional manufacturing depended on centralized workplaces and transportation schemes. F Advanced technology has rendered modern industry more flexible. F As a result, job opportunities have shifted to the suburbs and the activity system of cities has been considerably modified. A-2

18 Evolution of the Activity System of a City Financial Insurance Warehousing Financial Retailing Wholesaling Industrial Transportation Warehousing Financial Retailing Transportation Wholesaling A Industrial Warehousing Wholesaling Transportation BC Core activitiesCentral activitiesPeripheral activities A-2

19 Transportation and Urban Form n Evolution of transportation and urban form u Generally led to a change in most urban forms. u Dispersed urban land development patterns: F Dominant in North America. F Land is abundant F Transportation costs are low. F Economy dominated by service and technology industries. u Travel has become relatively inexpensive compared with land costs. u Households have an incentive to buy lower-priced housing at the urban periphery. u Similar patterns can be found in many European cities, but the change is occurring at a slightly slower pace. A-2

20 Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form n Decentralization of activities u Commuter journeys, many of which now occur from suburb to suburb, are shortened. u Usage of privately owned car rather than public transportation. u Most transit and road systems were developed to facilitate suburb-to- city, rather than suburb-to-suburb, commuting. u Suburban highways are often as congested as urban highways. n Consequences u The cost of building and operating urban transportation systems (highways, roads, transit, etc.) is becoming prohibitive. u Dispersed residential pattern makes transit systems less convenient for commuting. u In the developing world, unplanned and uncoordinated land use development has led to rapid expansion of the urban periphery. u Poorer residents, mainly living in shantytowns, do not have access to affordable and convenient public transportation. A-2

21 Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form, Technological Impacts I - Walking-horsecar era (1800-1890) II - Streetcar era (1890-1920) III - Automobile era (1920-1945) IV - Freeway era (1945-) I II III IV A-2

22 Transportation and Urban Structure n Strong variations u In the pre-automobile era, about 10% of the land of a city was devoted to transportation. u On average, 30% of the urban surface is devoted to roads while another 20% is required for off-street parking. u United States: F 155,000 square kilometers of the American territory are reserved for car use. F Urban transportation often accounts between 30 to 60% of the surface with infrastructures such as roads, highways and parking spaces. F About 10% of all arable land. F More land is used by cars than land devoted to housing. u For Western Europe roads account for between 15% and 20% of the urban surface and for Third World cities, this figure is about 10%. A-3

23 Space Consumption by Different Urban Transport Modes A-3

24 Transportation and Urban Structure n Suburbanization u Diffusion of ubiquitous and cheap road transportation in urban areas after the Second World War. u Favored the emergence of a new and distinct urban environment. u Available and cheap road transport. u Low land costs and available land (large houses). u Environment (clean and quiet). u Safety. u Car-oriented services (shopping malls). A-3

25 Retail Office Industrial Residential Highway Railway Core Suburban Development along an Highway Interchange A-3

26 Transportation and the Urban Structure n Changes in urban structures u Fast urbanization processes. F Greater number of people living in cities. F Increased numbers of trips in urban areas. u Expanding the transportation supply. u New highways and/or transit lines. u Building more roads to accommodate an ever-growing number of vehicles u Creating new urban structures. n Ring roads u Facing the expansion of urban areas and the increasing importance of inter-urban movements several ring roads were built around major cities. u Important attribute of the spatial structures of cities, notably in North America. A-3

27 The Rationale of a Ring Road Secondary Center City Center Avoiding the congested central area Structuring suburban development A-3

28 Environmental Impacts of the Transportation / Land Use System n 1. Urban Transport Issues n 2. Land Requirement and Consumption n 3. Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction B B

29 Urban Transport Issues n Importance of the issue u Cities are places having a high level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities. u Complex spatial structures to be supported by transport systems. u The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas. u Urban productivity depends in part on the efficiency of its transport system, notably to move labor and merchandises between several origins and destinations. u Urban transportation is concerned about movements of people, goods and information within urban areas. u Cities are important generators and attractors of movements. B-1

30 Urban Transport Issues n Segregation u Differentiation between land uses is a generator of movements as people and freight move from several origins and destinations. u The more complex the land use patterns in a city the more complex movements will be. u Efficient and affordable transportation will enhance the segregation of land uses. n Agglomeration u Since cities benefit from agglomeration economies, they also decrease transport costs. u Activities are located nearby each-others so they are accessible. u Agglomeration of movements in a limited area creates traffic, which renders movements more expensive. u Can reach a point where the advantages of agglomeration are overthrown by congestion. B-1

31 Urban Transport Issues n Space Consumption u The main goal of transportation is obviously to overcome the friction of space. u Transportation is also a major consumer of space. u Space is the most expansive in urban areas, transport consumes a lot of space in those areas. u Private car: F Requires space to move around (roads). F Also spends 98% of its existence stationary in a parking space. F A significant amount of urban space must thus be allocated to accommodate the private car. u The structure of urban land use has an important impact over transport demand and over the capacity of transportation systems to answer such needs. B-1

32 Land Requirement and Consumption n Issue u The land requirement of human activities, particularly in urban areas, has considerably grown. u 30 to 60% of urban areas are taken by road transportation infrastructure alone (road and parking lots). u In extreme cases of dependency on road transportation such as Los Angeles, it reaches 70%. n City size u The notion of cities was replaced by the notion of metropolitan areas and urban regions along corridors. u Reclamation of vast amounts of land from rural activities towards urban use. u Duplication and generalization of infrastructure F Resulted in supplementary land requirements. u The general aim was to convey a high level of accessibility to answer mobility demand of vast areas. B-2

33 Land Requirement and Consumption n Density u The geographical growth of cities has not been proportional to the growth of population. u Lower densities and higher waste of space. u Such phenomena have not occurred in the same fashion and in the same proportion over the world. u Typically the case for North American cities. u An increase in the quantity of energy consumed and waste generated has been the outcome. u The urban land use and its transport system have expanded environmental impacts of cities. u The bulk of transport and the environment issues are linked with urban areas. B-2

34 Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction n Spatial form u The spatial aspect of the city in terms of its extent. n Spatial pattern u The organization of the land use in terms of location. n Spatial interaction u The intensity of movements between spatial entities. u Spatial location of activities (residence, work, shopping, production and consumption). F Indications on the required travel demand and average distances between activities. u Specialized land use functions and a spatial segregation between economic activities, interactions are increasing in proportion. u The outward expansion of cities has given a relative uniform distribution of land use densities, notably in cities with a previously low level of density. B-3

35 Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction and the Environmental Impacts of Transportation Form Pattern Interaction B-3

36 Morphology, Urban Transportation and OR Traffic assignment g 2 (q ij ) Optimization Transport Costs g 1 (q ij ) g 3 (q ij ) Transport strategies Spatial strategies B-3

37 Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction n Residence / work separation u Becoming acute as well as the average commuting distance. F The average commuting time has climbed from 21.7 minutes in 1980 to 22.4 minutes in 1990. u Different urban concentrations are linked to different levels of energy consumption and environmental impacts. u Difficult to provide transportation services at an efficient cost. n Land use changes u A slow process. u Annual rates lower than 2% makes it difficult to establish sound transportation / land use strategies that could have effective impacts in a short period. u It took 30 to 50 years to North American, Australian and to some extent European cities to reach their current patterns. u May take the same amount of time to reach a new "equilibrium". u The environmental impacts of transportation and land use are likely to stay prevalent in the urban context for several decades. B-3

38 Integration of Urban Transportation Modes Inner-city pedestrian area Parking area Main transit line Secondary ring road Primary ring road Highway Suburban development corridor Passenger terminal B-3

39 Case Studies n 1. The Chinese Context n 2. Urban Land Use Changes in China n 3. Urban Transportation in Shanghai n 4. Urban Transportation and Air Pollution in Shanghai n 5. Policies and Challenges C C

40 Crude Oil Production and Consumption, United States, 1981-1998 (in 1,000 of barrels per day) C-1

41 Crude Oil Production and Consumption, China, 1981- 1998 (in 1,000 of barrels per day) C-1

42 Pre 1980s Chinese City “Center of power” Commercial / Institutional Compact Transit-oriented Labor intensive industrial High density agricultural Main arterial TransportationLand Use Rail C-2

43 Pre 1980s Chinese City n Spatial structure u Work unit as basic organizational structure. u Compact and limited mobility needs. u Walking and cycling are dominant. u Several nucleus. u Locally oriented development. u Limited centrality. Resource and commercial hinterland Agricultural hinterland National Economy C-2

44 Post 1980s Chinese City “Center of power” Compact Transit-oriented Labor intensive industrial Compact motorized Administrative / commercial New industrial activities Development zones Terminals / logistical High density agricultural Commercial / Institutional Main arterial TransportationLand Use Rail FreewayMass transit C-2

45 Post 1980s Chinese City n Spatial structure u Mixture of local and international actors. u Creation of a motorized space. u “Spatial stamping”. u Morphological “creative destruction”. u Emerging centrality / polynuclearism. Resource and commercial hinterland Agricultural hinterland National Economy Global Economy Migration C-2

46 Office Space Supply and Demand, Beijing 1984-2000 C-2

47 Mode Used for All Trip Purposes, Shanghai 1995 C-3

48 Main Modes Used for Commuting in the United States, 1995 C-3

49 Evolution of Non-Pedestrian Modal Use, Shanghai 1981-1995 C-3

50 Non-Pedestrian Modal Use, Shanghai 1995 C-3

51 Performance of the Taxi Industry, Shanghai, 1991-1998 C-3

52 Evolution of the Bus Fleet and Ridership, Shanghai, 1978-1998 C-3

53 Trips by Transportation Mode, Shanghai, 1991-1998 (in billions) C-3

54 Emissions per km for Various Vehicles to Transport 140 Passengers (in grams) C-4

55 Vehicle Emission of Pollutants, Shanghai 1990-2000 (in 10,000 tons per year) C-4

56 Contribution of Vehicles to Pollution Emissions, Shanghai, 1994-2005 C-4

57 Emissions of Air Pollutants (grams per km) for a Passenger Car in the United States and China, 1997 C-4

58 Emissions of Air Pollutants (grams per km) for a Light Truck in the United States and China, 1997 C-4

59 Daily Concentrations of Pollutants at Main Street Intersections, Shanghai 1994 C-4

60 Policies and Challenges n The North American Context u Abundance of land. u Low transportation costs. u Economy dominated by service and technological industries. u Multiplicity of jurisdictions. n Current issues and policies in North America u Fuel taxes, clean fuels (hydrogen) and non-polluting technologies. u Promotion of energy-efficient transportation modes and of non- motorized modes. u Demand control (licensing and restrictions). u Traffic management (separation between transit and car). u Integration of transport modes and land uses. C-5

61 Density and Car Use in North American Cities, 1991 C-5

62 Policies and Challenges n Shanghai u Fast growth of the fleet u 900,000 vehicles in 2000. u Motorized vehicles (buses, trucks and cars). u 10,000 cars in 2000. F Expecting to have 100,000 cars by 2005. F Strong lobbying by GM and Volkswagen. u Cycles and motorcycles. F 700,000 motorcycles in 2000. F No new licenses permitted. u Retirement of old vehicles. u Infrastructure provision F Amount of roads per capita has doubled. F Not keeping up with the demand. C-5

63 Urban Transportation Environmental Challenges n Vehicle emission control and regulations u About 50% of vehicles do not meet Chinese standards. u Chinese standards are 25 years behind Western standards. n Fuel policy u About 99% of vehicles are using leaded fuel. u 600,000 tons of lead emitted each year. u Pricing incentives. n Engine technology u Improving air/fuel ratio in engines. u Electronic fuel injection system and catalytic converters. u Shift to diesel for heavy trucks. u Compressed natural gas for buses (60% less emissions). C-5

64 Urban Transportation Environmental Challenges n Public transit u Drop of speed of surface public transportation. u Shift to cycling. n Traffic management u Congestion. u Rules and safety. u About 50% of the time will be spent idle. n Traffic separation u Increase vehicle speed (about 10 km/hr faster). u 10 to 20% less pollutant emissions. u Reduce level of exposure, especially for bicycles. C-5

65 Urban Transportation Environmental Challenges n Exposure u Very high level of exposure. u Land use factors. u Activity factors. C-5

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