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Chapter 13 – Urban Patterns

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1 Chapter 13 – Urban Patterns

2 Review from Chapter 12 – Define: Urban Rural Urbanization
Largest Cities in the world are now in LDCs Different lifestyle – Rural – know everyone, simple and calmer Urban – know family and work mates, complicated, stressful MSA (CMA) – Metropolitan Statistical Area or Census Metropolitan Area – Urbanized area of influence. Toronto has the GTA. Micropolitan – smaller urban areas

3 Percent Urban Population
Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.

4 Large Cities Cities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.

5 The next slide contains an illustration of a number of key terms in action in the city of Toronto. Be prepared to take notes.

6 De-Urbanization Counter Urbanization
Edge Cities – (Satellite Towns) New Market/Aurora Greenbelt Urban Sprawl Leap Frog – Woodbridge/King City Urban Fringe Steeles Ave. 401, 407, 400 etc are considered Beltways and growth occurs along them HWY 401 Yonge St. Infill – 400 & 401 Spine – University Ave. Light Industry Westerlies (Winds) Density Gradient – Decrease away from CBD Gentrification Urban Renewal Renovation Annexation Zone of Discard Heavy Industry Zone of Assimilation CBD Urban Sprawl Vertical Growth Downtown Conurbation Megalopolis

7 Social area analysis: The distribution of social characteristics in a census track may be plotted on a map using GIS. This information creates an overall picture of how various types of people are distributed in an area. Groups do tend to segregate based on income, ethnicity and race. GIS experts can map: Social class – income, education, occupation Age and Martial status Gender Race and ethnicity – Chinatowns, Little Italy, Greek town etc. What kind of decisions can private or public sectors make based on information gathered from above?

8 Models of Urban Structure:
Concentric Zone Model – 1923 – E.W. Burgess Growth occurs in rings around the CBD. Poor and Industry are located around the CBD Workers have to be close to work so they are the next ring Middle class acts as a buffer between rich and poor so they are next Rich can afford to be far away from CBD and commute to work Oldest theory – related to Von Thunen’s model Toronto – the ring is interrupted by the lake – but there is a pattern of ring growth in Toronto See diagram next slide

9 Concentric Zone Model Burgess - In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.

10 The Sector Model – 1939 – Homer Hoyt
Remember the pattern: industry next to CBD, workers next to industry, middle class acting as a buffer and then the high class . You will not have the high class touching the low class Transportation is key in this model and growth occurs outwards along major roads or rail lines Also called Corridor growth High class will have access to the CBD – eg. Toronto - Rosedale Toronto has corridor growth along some rail lines and roads like Spadina, Yonge and University See diagram

11 Sector Model Hoyt - In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD - transportation is key.

12 The Multi-Nuclei Model – 1945 – C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman
Based on Nodal growth – Particular centers begin the growth Each classification has its own node or center Relates to modern cities with detached suburb and industry Heavy industry has moved out of CBD A second CBD is taken into account The rest is the same pattern as the other two but remember: Concentric – rings, Sector – corridors and Multi-Nuclei – nodes Toronto has nodal growth – Yonge and Sheppard with a second CBD. We have heavy industry on the outskirts – Airport, Brampton, Burlington. See diagram

13 Multiple Nuclei Model Ullman and Harris - The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.

14 Does Toronto fit the Concentric model, Sector or Multi-nuclei??

15 Both Concentric and Sector Models for the city of Barcelona

16 Indianapolis: Percent Renters
The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model.

17 Indianapolis: Household Income
The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis is an example of a sector model.

18 Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns
The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple nuclei model.

19 Peripheral Model developed by C. D
Peripheral Model developed by C.D. Harris (same guy who created the Multi-Nuclei Theory) This model relates more to the areas outside the city. An urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. The idea here is that the peripheral areas do not suffer the problems of inner cities – the poor, deterioration, crime, congestion BUT the periphery will suffer from the problems of urban sprawl and segregation (being disconnected from the rest of the city)

20 Peripheral Model of Urban Areas
The central city is surrounded by a ring road, around which are suburban areas and edge cities, shopping malls, office parks, industrial areas, and service complexes.

21 Using the models outside North America
These models do not work well in European cities – The wealthy tend to live in an inner ring next to the center of the city. A Spine (broad avenue) is more prominent in European cities – eg. The Champs-Elysees in Paris The CBD is not necessarily the Geographic center of the city. The Geographic center in European cities is usually the ancient, historical center and the CBD is found outside the city-center – Eg. Rome, Paris and London – these cities even have height restrictions (even Washington D.C. has one) The suburb really does not exist in Europe Single family houses are rare – Condominium living is the norm.

22 Colonial cites are similar to European cities
Colonial cites are similar to European cities. Most of these cities are port cities for the obvious reason of supplying the mother country. These cities have pre-colonial parts (old quarters – cramped houses and narrow streets) and European parts (colonial additions – low density, better housing, gardens) The Latin American city stresses the Spine. Where the rich push out from the center. Mexico city is a prime example. See the next slide. Many LDC cities since they cannot handle the growing number of urban residences develop areas where people build make shift homes (no electricity, water or sanitation) on land that does not belong to them – Shanty Towns – Squatter Settlements.

23 Latin American City Model
In many Latin American cities, the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector extending along a commercial spine.

24 Discuss the following Inner City Problems:
Filtering Redlining Urban Renewal Public Housing – row housing, town housing White Flight/Block Busting Social Problems – inner city schools, poverty, homeless, crime, racial segregation Ghettoization Annexation Gentrification

25 A word about Urban Renewal:
Cities identify blighted areas in the inner city They acquire the properties Relocate the residences Clear the site Build roads and utilities Private Development comes in and builds – homes, schools, malls and parks Theoretically the residences come back – sometimes it is too expensive for the original residences Toronto – Regent Park Sometimes Urban Renewal leads to Urban Renovation – old properties are not torn down but converted into lofts, galleries, restaurants Toronto – Mill Street district, Yorkville

26 Problems of the Suburbs:
Importance of the automobile – made suburbs possible - reshaped the city Density Gradient Edge Cities Urban Sprawl Lack of an infrastructure Segregation Zoning Mass (public) vs. Private Transportation – Rush Hour Smart Growth/New Urbanism

27 A word about Urban Sprawl (according to Anthony Downs):
Low Density Leap Frog growth – sometimes Kilometers away Fragmentation of political power Transportation dominates Lack of planning and control of land uses Commercial strip development Zoning becomes important Lack of low income housing – forces poor to go to inner city Loss of agricultural land Unlimited outward expansion Creates conurbation and megalopolises What effect will the price of gas have on Urban Sprawl? What is going to happen to the big homes in Woodbridge as the population ages?

28 Describe the following:
Conurbation Megalopolis Examples: BosNyWash, ChiPitts, SanSan, MonTorWin, Tokaido, German Ruhr, Randstad


30 Suburban Development in the U.S. and U.K.
New housing in the U.K. is likely to be in planned new towns, while in the U.S. growth occurs in discontinuous developments.


32 Urban Sprawl



35 Private vs. Public Transit
Cars Bus Bicycle/Scooters

36 London’s Underground

37 Paris and It’s Metro

38 New York’s Subway

39 Rome’s Metropolitana

40 Tokyo’s Subway

41 Montreal’s Metro

42 Guess who?

43 Smart Growth – New Urbanism:
A new form of development to fight the negative effects of Urban Sprawl. Build traditional neighbourhoods, removing the addiction of the car and creating a sense of community. People not cars Urban sprawl builds houses first and then everything else – schools, malls, offices are built afterwards to try and catch-up – Smart Growth builds everything at once and it is built to interact. Schools are built at the center of a residential area connected to the homes with paths Streets are narrow, each home has a porch, grassy medians in the middle of the street Commercial and work places are built into the plan – usually on the outskirts of the residences Housing types are mixed

44 Walking is encouraged – low order goods within reach
Garages are set to the back of the home or in laneways Backyard faces into a park or a common area – Front yard is the main focus of the house – spend more time in the front Main streets will contain major stores and offices Parks become the nodes In some plans parks, schools and stores are at the center of the community – this is called a Nodal Design MUD – Mixed Land-Use Development Please see the next few slides and the teacher may draw an example on the board.

45 Smart Growth

46 New Urbanism


48 Vocabulary List

49 Agglomeration Barriadas Bid-rent theory Blockbusting CBD (central business district) Census tract Centrality Centralization Central-place theory Christaller, Walter City Cityscapes Colonial city Commercialization Commuter zone Concentric zone model Counterurbanization Decentralization Deindustrialization Early cities Economic base (basic/nonbasic) Edge city Emerging cities Employment structure Entrepôt Ethnic neighborhood Favela Female-headed household Festival landscape Gateway city Gender Gentrification Ghetto Globalization Great cities High-tech corridors Hinterland Hydraulic civilization Indigenous city In-filling Informal sector Infrastructure Inner city

50 Invasion and succession
Lateral commuting Medieval cities Megacities Megalopolis/conurbation Metropolitan area Multiple nuclei model Multiplier effect Neighborhood Office park Peak land value intersection Planned communities Postindustrial city Postmodern urban landscape Primate city Racial steering Rank-size rule Redlining Restrictive covenants Sector model Segregation Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated) Shopping mall Site/situation Slum Social structure Specialization Squatter settlement Street pattern (grid, dendritic; access, control) Suburb Suburbanization Symbolic landscape Tenement Threshold/range Town Underclass Underemployment Urban growth rate

51 Urban function Urban hearth area Urban heat island Urban hierarchy Urban hydrology Urban morphology Urbanization Urbanized population World city Zone in transition Zoning

52 The End

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