2Review from Chapter 12 – Define: Urban Rural Urbanization Largest Cities in the world are now in LDCsDifferent lifestyle – Rural – know everyone, simple and calmerUrban – know family and work mates, complicated, stressfulMSA (CMA) – Metropolitan Statistical Area or Census Metropolitan Area – Urbanized area of influence. Toronto has the GTA.Micropolitan – smaller urban areas
3Percent Urban Population Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.
4Large CitiesCities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.
5The next slide contains an illustration of a number of key terms in action in the city of Toronto. Be prepared to take notes.
6De-Urbanization Counter Urbanization Edge Cities – (Satellite Towns) New Market/AuroraGreenbeltUrbanSprawlLeap Frog – Woodbridge/King CityUrban FringeSteeles Ave.401, 407, 400 etc are considered Beltways and growth occurs along themHWY 401Yonge St.Infill – 400 & 401Spine – University Ave.Light IndustryWesterlies (Winds)Density Gradient – Decrease away from CBDGentrificationUrban RenewalRenovationAnnexationZone of DiscardHeavy IndustryZone of AssimilationCBDUrban SprawlVertical GrowthDowntownConurbationMegalopolis
7Social area analysis:The distribution of social characteristics in a census track may be plotted on a map using GIS. This information creates an overall picture of how various types of people are distributed in an area. Groups do tend to segregate based on income, ethnicity and race.GIS experts can map:Social class – income, education, occupationAge and Martial statusGenderRace and ethnicity – Chinatowns, Little Italy, Greek town etc.What kind of decisions can private or public sectors make based on information gathered from above?
8Models of Urban Structure: Concentric Zone Model – 1923 – E.W. BurgessGrowth occurs in rings around the CBD.Poor and Industry are located around the CBDWorkers have to be close to work so they are the next ringMiddle class acts as a buffer between rich and poor so they are nextRich can afford to be far away from CBD and commute to workOldest theory – related to Von Thunen’s modelToronto – the ring is interrupted by the lake – but there is a pattern of ring growth in TorontoSee diagram next slide
9Concentric Zone ModelBurgess - In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
10The Sector Model – 1939 – Homer Hoyt Remember the pattern:industry next to CBD, workers next to industry, middle class acting as a buffer and then the high class .You will not have the high class touching the low classTransportation is key in this model and growth occurs outwards along major roads or rail linesAlso called Corridor growthHigh class will have access to the CBD – eg. Toronto - RosedaleToronto has corridor growth along some rail lines and roads like Spadina, Yonge and UniversitySee diagram
11Sector ModelHoyt - In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD - transportation is key.
12The Multi-Nuclei Model – 1945 – C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman Based on Nodal growth – Particular centers begin the growthEach classification has its own node or centerRelates to modern cities with detached suburb and industryHeavy industry has moved out of CBDA second CBD is taken into accountThe rest is the same pattern as the other two but remember:Concentric – rings, Sector – corridors and Multi-Nuclei – nodesToronto has nodal growth – Yonge and Sheppard with a second CBD. We have heavy industry on the outskirts – Airport, Brampton, Burlington.See diagram
13Multiple Nuclei ModelUllman and Harris - The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
14Does Toronto fit the Concentric model, Sector or Multi-nuclei??
15Both Concentric and Sector Models for the city of Barcelona
16Indianapolis: Percent Renters The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model.
17Indianapolis: Household Income The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis is an example of a sector model.
18Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple nuclei model.
19Peripheral Model developed by C. D Peripheral Model developed by C.D. Harris (same guy who created the Multi-Nuclei Theory)This model relates more to the areas outside the city.An urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.The idea here is that the peripheral areas do not suffer the problems of inner cities – the poor, deterioration, crime, congestion BUT the periphery will suffer from the problems of urban sprawl and segregation (being disconnected from the rest of the city)
20Peripheral Model of Urban Areas The central city is surrounded by a ring road, around which are suburban areas and edge cities, shopping malls, office parks, industrial areas, and service complexes.
21Using the models outside North America These models do not work well in European cities – The wealthy tend to live in an inner ring next to the center of the city.A Spine (broad avenue) is more prominent in European cities – eg. The Champs-Elysees in ParisThe CBD is not necessarily the Geographic center of the city.The Geographic center in European cities is usually the ancient, historical center and the CBD is found outside the city-center – Eg. Rome, Paris and London – these cities even have height restrictions (even Washington D.C. has one)The suburb really does not exist in EuropeSingle family houses are rare – Condominium living is the norm.
22Colonial cites are similar to European cities Colonial cites are similar to European cities. Most of these cities are port cities for the obvious reason of supplying the mother country.These cities have pre-colonial parts (old quarters – cramped houses and narrow streets) and European parts (colonial additions – low density, better housing, gardens)The Latin American city stresses the Spine. Where the rich push out from the center. Mexico city is a prime example. See the next slide.Many LDC cities since they cannot handle the growing number of urban residences develop areas where people build make shift homes (no electricity, water or sanitation) on land that does not belong to them – Shanty Towns – Squatter Settlements.
23Latin American City Model In many Latin American cities, the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector extending along a commercial spine.
24Discuss the following Inner City Problems: FilteringRedliningUrban RenewalPublic Housing – row housing, town housingWhite Flight/Block BustingSocial Problems – inner city schools, poverty, homeless, crime, racial segregationGhettoizationAnnexationGentrification
25A word about Urban Renewal: Cities identify blighted areas in the inner cityThey acquire the propertiesRelocate the residencesClear the siteBuild roads and utilitiesPrivate Development comes in and builds – homes, schools, malls and parksTheoretically the residences come back – sometimes it is too expensive for the original residencesToronto – Regent ParkSometimes Urban Renewal leads to Urban Renovation – old properties are not torn down but converted into lofts, galleries, restaurantsToronto – Mill Street district, Yorkville
26Problems of the Suburbs: Importance of the automobile – made suburbs possible - reshaped the cityDensity GradientEdge CitiesUrban SprawlLack of an infrastructureSegregationZoningMass (public) vs. Private Transportation – Rush HourSmart Growth/New Urbanism
27A word about Urban Sprawl (according to Anthony Downs): Low DensityLeap Frog growth – sometimes Kilometers awayFragmentation of political powerTransportation dominatesLack of planning and control of land usesCommercial strip developmentZoning becomes importantLack of low income housing – forces poor to go to inner cityLoss of agricultural landUnlimited outward expansionCreates conurbation and megalopolisesWhat effect will the price of gas have on Urban Sprawl?What is going to happen to the big homes in Woodbridge as the population ages?
28Describe the following: ConurbationMegalopolisExamples: BosNyWash, ChiPitts, SanSan, MonTorWin, Tokaido, German Ruhr, Randstad
43Smart Growth – New Urbanism: A new form of development to fight the negative effects of Urban Sprawl.Build traditional neighbourhoods, removing the addiction of the car and creating a sense of community.People not carsUrban sprawl builds houses first and then everything else – schools, malls, offices are built afterwards to try and catch-up – Smart Growth builds everything at once and it is built to interact.Schools are built at the center of a residential area connected to the homes with pathsStreets are narrow, each home has a porch, grassy medians in the middle of the streetCommercial and work places are built into the plan – usually on the outskirts of the residencesHousing types are mixed
44Walking is encouraged – low order goods within reach Garages are set to the back of the home or in lanewaysBackyard faces into a park or a common area – Front yard is the main focus of the house – spend more time in the frontMain streets will contain major stores and officesParks become the nodesIn some plans parks, schools and stores are at the center of the community – this is called a Nodal DesignMUD – Mixed Land-Use DevelopmentPlease see the next few slides and the teacher may draw an example on the board.