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Urban Growth and Transportation. “The paved paradise and put up a parking lot. They took all the trees and put them in tree museum. And they charged all.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Growth and Transportation. “The paved paradise and put up a parking lot. They took all the trees and put them in tree museum. And they charged all."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Growth and Transportation

2 “The paved paradise and put up a parking lot. They took all the trees and put them in tree museum. And they charged all the people a dollar and a half just to see them.” Joni Mitchell

3 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Lateral Growth Patterns –Vertical Growth Patterns

4 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Lateral Growth Patterns Concentric-Circle ModelConcentric-Circle Model Sector ModelSector Model Multiple-Nuclei ModelMultiple-Nuclei Model

5 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Lateral Growth Patterns Concentric-Circle ModelConcentric-Circle Model –Growth outward from Central Business District (CBD) –New York City

6 Concentric-Circle Model of Urban Development

7 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Lateral Growth Patterns Sector ModelSector Model –City develops in system of pie-shaped wedges outward from CBD –San Francisco-San Jose

8 Sector Model of Urban Development

9 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Lateral Growth Patterns Multiple-Nuclei ModelMultiple-Nuclei Model –City develops around number of independent centers or satellite cities –Los Angeles

10 Multiple Nuclei Model of Urban Development

11 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Vertical Growth Lack of land available for conversion to urban landLack of land available for conversion to urban land City grows upwardCity grows upward High population densityHigh population density Hong Kong; TokyoHong Kong; Tokyo

12 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Building New Cities and Towns Satellite townsSatellite towns –Located close to an existing large city Freestanding new townsFreestanding new towns –Located far from any major city In-town new townsIn-town new towns –Located in existing urban areas

13 Urban Growth and Transportation Spatial Patterns of Urban DevelopmentSpatial Patterns of Urban Development –Building New Cities and Towns Rarely succeed without enormous financial supportRarely succeed without enormous financial support Most fail due to enormous debt loadMost fail due to enormous debt load –Reston, VA –Columbia, MD –Las Colinas, TX

14 Urban Growth and Transportation Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural AreasLand Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas –Environmental Impacts Strain on rural infrastructureStrain on rural infrastructure –Traffic congestion –Fire and police protection –Water supplies –Wastewater treatment –Crime

15 Urban Growth and Transportation Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural AreasLand Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas –Environmental Impacts Strain on rural infrastructureStrain on rural infrastructure –Schools –Noise –Water and air pollution

16 Urban Growth and Transportation Land Conversion and Disruption of Rural AreasLand Conversion and Disruption of Rural Areas –Economic Impacts Increased jobsIncreased jobs Economic growthEconomic growth Rising pricesRising prices Higher property taxesHigher property taxes

17 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Transportation Options Individual TransitIndividual Transit –Automobiles –Motor Cycles –Bicycles Mass TransitMass Transit –Bus –Rail

18 U.S. Transportation Patterns

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20 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Motor Vehicles 550 million vehicles worldwide550 million vehicles worldwide >10X increase in vehicles since 1950>10X increase in vehicles since % vehicles are in MDCs89% vehicles are in MDCs

21 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Motor Vehicles United StatesUnited States –4.8% world population –36% of all cars in world –Car usage: »98% of all urban transportation »85% of all travel between cities »84% of all travel to and from work

22 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Motor Vehicles U.S. Interstate Highway SystemU.S. Interstate Highway System –Highways »City-to-city travel »Spurred rapid growth of suburbs

23 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Motor Vehicles Freeways/BeltwaysFreeways/Beltways –Bypass cities –Spurred suburb-to-suburb travel –Spurred growth of shopping malls

24 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit U.S. Trends in Mass TransitU.S. Trends in Mass Transit –1945: 24 million riders –1980: 8 million

25 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Reasons for decreased ridershipReasons for decreased ridership –Increased use of automobile –Development of dispersed city –Cheap gasoline –Affordable cars –Gasoline taxes used to build highways

26 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Reasons for decreased ridershipReasons for decreased ridership –Dismantlement of trolley system » all major U.S. cities had efficient trolleys or electric streetcars » dismantling of privately-owned streetcars by National City Lines (GM, Firestone, Standard Oil)

27 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Reasons for decreased ridershipReasons for decreased ridership –Huge federal investment in interstate highway system »64,000 miles of interstate highway »1/10th of federal gasoline tax goes to mass transit; 9/10 goes to building highways

28 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Reasons for decreased ridershipReasons for decreased ridership –Federal tax code discriminates against mass transit and those who cycle/walk to work –Employers can deduct the entire expense of providing parking for their workers –Employers get only ~$15 per month tax write- off for employees who take mass transit –Tax benefits for company cars

29 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Rail SystemsRail Systems –Rapid Rail »Operate on exclusive rights-of-ways or on elevated tracks (CTA) –Suburban/Regional Trains »Connect central cities with suburbs (Metra)

30 Potential Routes for High Speed Bullet Trains

31 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit Rail SystemsRail Systems –Streetcars »Move on regular streets with other traffic –Light Rail (trolleys) »Modern version of streetcars

32 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit BusesBuses –Cheaper and more flexible than rail systems –Can be easily rerouted within cities to meet changing transportation patterns –Lower operating costs than rail systems –Most energy-efficient approach is use of express buses coupled with park-and-ride

33 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit BicyclesBicycles –Worldwide: 2X as many bikes as cars –Bike riders can make most trips under 5 miles faster than a car! –Trips < 5 miles comprise 43% of all trips in the U.S.

34 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit BicyclesBicycles –U.S. - 2% of all commuters to and from work ride bikes –Netherlands - 30% of all urban trips are made using bikes

35 Urban Growth and Transportation Transportation and Urban DevelopmentTransportation and Urban Development –Mass Transit BicyclesBicycles –Ways to increase bicycle use »Building well-maintained/well-lit paths »Widening shoulders on major highways »Providing bicycle lockers and racks on mass transit »Establishing bike-carrying buses


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