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Sustainable Cities Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Cities Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Cities Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

2 The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil  Ecocity, green city: Curitiba, Brazil  Bus system: cars banned in certain areas  Housing and industrial parks  Recycling of materials  Helping the poor  New challenges

3 Major Population Trends in Urban Areas  Urbanization continues to increase steadily and the numbers and sizes of urban areas are growing rapidly, especially in developing countries.

4 Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas  Urbanization – creation and growth of urban areas  Urban growth- rate of increase of urban populations Natural increase- more birth’s than death’s 79% - Americans and 50%- world’s people live in urban areas Immigration from rural areas Pushed from rural areas to urban areas Pulled to urban areas from rural areas

5 Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas  Four major trends Proportion of global population living in urban areas is increasing Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming Megacities – more than 10 million - 18 Hypercities – more than 20 million -1 :Tokyo Urban growth slower in developed countries Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized; mostly in developing countries

6 Global Outlook: Satellite Image of Major Urban Areas Throughout the World

7 Typical Daily Traffic Jam of People, Carts, and Other Vehicles in Delhi, India

8 Urbanization in the US  Four phases between 1800 and 2008 Migration from rural areas to large central cities Migration from large central cities to SUBURBS and smaller cities Migration from North and East to South and West Migration from cities and suburbs to developed rural areas - EXBURBS

9 Urbanization in the US  Environmental problems decreased better working and housing conditions air/water quality improved better sanitation, better medical care concentration in cities, reduced habitat destruction, protect biodiversity  Older cities Deteriorating services Aging infrastructures- streets, bridgeswater supply pipes, sewers,dams. Fallen $1.5 trillion behind

10 Major Urban Areas in the United States Revealed by Satellite Images at Night

11 Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside  Urban sprawl – growth of low-density development  Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S. Ample land Federal government loans Low-cost gasoline; highways Tax laws encouraged home ownership State and local zoning laws Multiple political jurisdictions: poor urban planning

12 Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside  Effects of urban sprawl Las Vegas 1973 Las Vegas 2000

13 U.S. Megalopolis of Bowash 500 mile long with 35 million people

14 Fig. 22-6, p. 593 NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Urban Sprawl Land and Biodiversity WaterEnergy, Air, and Climate Economic Effects Loss of cropland Increased use of surface water and groundwater Increased energy use and waste Decline of downtown business districts Loss of forests and grasslands Increased runoff and flooding Increased air pollution Increased unemployment in central city Loss of wetlands Increased greenhouse gas emissions Increased surface water and groundwater pollution Loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitats Enhanced global warming Loss of tax base in central city Decreased natural sewage treatment

15 Urbanization Has Advantages  Centers of: Economic development Innovation Education Technological advances Jobs  Environmental advantages Recycling Reduce stress on wildlife habitats Save energy – mass transportation

16  Huge ecological footprints Urban populations occupy 2% of the world’s area but consume 75% of the resources and reulting high waste output  Lack vegetation Vegetation destroyed –buildings, parking lots, roads no absorbtion of pollutants, shade, aesthetic  Water problems flooding, destroy wetlands, severe water shortage Urbanization has Disadvantages

17 Urbanization Has Disadvantages  Concentrate pollution and health problems  Excessive noise  Different climate and experience light pollution cities warmer, foggier,cloudier than suburbs and nearby rural areas heat generated by industry,heat -absorbing surfaces create URBAN HEAT ISLAND

18 Fig. 22-8, p. 595 InputsOutputs Energy Solid wastes Food Waste heat Air pollutants Water Water pollutants Raw materials Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Money Wealth Information Ideas Natural Capital Degradation: Urban Areas Rarely Are Sustainable Systems

19 Fig. 22-9, p. 596 Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure Noise Levels (in dbA) 85 0102030405060708090100110120130140150 Normal breathing Quiet rural area RainfallVacuum cleaner Lawn mower Rock music Earphones at loud level Whisper Quiet room Normal conversation Average factory Chain saw Military rifle Thunderclap (nearby) Air raid siren Boom cars Noise Levels of Some Common Sounds

20 Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries  Slums  Squatter settlements  Shantytown  What can governments do ? slow migration from rural areas designate land, supply clean water, composting toilets transportation

21 Case Study: Mexico City  Urban area in crisis Severe air pollution Water pollution 50% Unemployment Deafening noise Overcrowding Traffic congestion Inadequate public transportation 1/3 live in slums (barrios) or squatter settlement  Progress – catalytic converters after 1991,no cars in central zone, no leaded gas, green spaces

22 How Does Transportation Affect Urban Environmental Impacts?  Combination of plentiful land, inexpensive fuel, expanding network of highways – dispersed cities, residents depend on motor vehicles for most transportation  Compact cities Dispersed cities Hong Kong, China United States Tokyo, Japan Canada Mass transit Australia

23 Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages  Advantages Mobility and convenience Jobs in Production and repair of vehicles Supplying fuel Building roads Status symbol Disadvantages Largest source of outdoor air pollution Accidents: death and injury Helped create urban sprawl Traffic congestion

24 Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done  Full-cost pricing: high gasoline taxes - $3.18/liter Gradually phasing in, will spur energy – efficient cars and mass transportation Europe, Japan, Developing Chinese cities  Difficult to pass in the United States Strong public opposition Mass transit: not an option in most cities Dispersed nature of the U.S.

25 Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done  Raise parking fees  Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major cities  Car-sharing  Charge a fee to drive into a major city  It is working in some cities

26 Some Cities Are Promoting Alternatives to Car Ownership  Bicycles  Heavy-rail systems  Light-rail systems  Buses  Rapid-rail system between urban areas

27 Fig. 22-11, p. 600 TRADE-OFFS Bicycles AdvantagesDisadvantages AffordableLittle protection in an accident Produce no pollution Do not protect riders from bad weather Quiet Impractical for long trips Require little parking space Easy to maneuver in traffic Take few resources to make Lack of secure bike parking Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles)

28 Fig. 22-12, p. 600 TRADE-OFFS Mass Transit Rail AdvantagesDisadvantages Uses less energy and produces less air pollution than cars Expensive to build and maintain Requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars Cost-effective only along a densely populated corridor Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars Commits riders to transportation schedules Reduces car congestion in cities Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents

29 Fig. 22-13, p. 601 TRADE-OFFS Buses AdvantagesDisadvantages Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Can be rerouted as needed Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Can get caught in traffic and add to pollution Commits riders to transportation schedules Can greatly reduce car use and air pollution Noisy

30 Fig. 22-14, p. 601 TRADE-OFFS Rapid Rail AdvantagesDisadvantages Can reduce travel by car or plane Expensive to run and maintain Ideal for trips of 200– 1,000 kilometers (120–620 miles) Must operate along heavily used routes to be profitable Much more energy efficient per rider than a car or plane Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents

31 Potential Routes for High-Speed Bullet Trains in the U.S./Canada

32 Case Study: Destroying a Great Mass Transit System in the United States  National City Lines  Purchased and dismantled streetcar systems  Sales of cars and buses increased  Guilty of conspiracy

33 How Important Is Urban Land Use Planning? Urban land-use planning can help to reduce uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity, and other natural resources.

34 Conventional Land-Use Planning  Land-use planning Encourages future population growth Economic development Revenues: property taxes Environmental and social consequences  Zoning – various parcels of land are designated for various uses Mixed-use zoning – promoting neighborhood grocery stores

35  Smart growth Reduces dependence on cars Controls and directs sprawl Cuts wasteful resource Smart Growth works US cities – Portland, Oregon, greenest city in the US San Francisco, CA Curitiba, Brazil China 80% of country’s arable land designated as fundamental land Europe-high gas tax

36 Fig. 22-16, p. 603 SOLUTIONS Smart Growth Tools Limits and Regulations Protection Limit building permits Preserve existing open space Urban growth boundaries Buy new open space Greenbelts around cities Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels Public review of new development Zoning Tax land, not buildings Taxes Encourage mixed use of housing and small businesses Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture) instead of on highest value as developed land Concentrate development along mass transportation routes Promote high-density cluster housing developments Tax Breaks For owners agreeing not to allow certain types of development (conservation easements) Planning For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Ecological land-use planning Environmental impact analysis Integrated regional planning Revitalization and New Growth Revitalize existing towns and cities State and national planning Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities

37 Preserving and Using Open Space  Urban growth boundary U.S. states: Washington, Oregon, and Tennessee  Municipal parks U.S. cities: New York City and San Francisco  Greenbelts Canadian cities: Vancouver and Toronto Western European cities Central Park, New York

38 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and Livable? An ecocity allows people to: choose walking, biking, or mass transit for most transportation needs; recycle or reuse most of their wastes; grow much of their food; and protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding land.

39 New Urbanism Is Growing  Conventional housing development  Cluster development – high density housing clustered, rest of the land is common shared space  New urbanism, old villageism Walkability Mixed-use and diversity Quality urban design Environmental sustainability Smart transportation Mayfaire, Wilmington,NC ; Yardley, PA ; Kentlands, Gaithersburg MD and others

40 Conventional and Cluster Housing Developments

41 The Ecocity Concept: Cities for People Not Cars  Ecocities or green cities Build and redesign for people Use renewable energy resources Recycle and purify water Use energy and matter resources efficiently Prevent pollution and reduce waste Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste Protect and support biodiversity Urban gardens; farmers markets Zoning and other tools for sustainability

42 Urban Indoor Farming  Rooftop greenhouses Sun Works: designs energy-efficient greenhouses  Hydroponic gardens  Skyscraper farms  Ecological advantages and disadvantages

43 China’s Vision for an Ecocity  2008: Dongtan, China, ecocity, 30 milesfrom Shanghai. 80,000 people by 2020  Carbon neutral city: use renewable resources for energy  Reduce the need for cars, or use electric- or hydrogen-powered cars-zero tail pipe emissions. Cars running on fossil fuels will have to be parked outside the city  Public transportation – electric light rail, pollution free, fuel cell buses

44 The Ecovillage Movement Is Growing  Ecovillage movement Eco-hoods – 375, half in Europe and half in North America  1993: ecovillage in Los Angeles, CA, U.S. What is making it work?  Other ecovillages Asheville NC, Ithaca NY Success stories

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