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Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

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1 Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun
Sustainable Cities Chapter 22 Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

2 The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil
Ecocity, green city: Curitiba, Brazil Bus system: cars banned in certain areas Housing and industrial parks Recycling of materials Helping the poor New challenges

3 Major Population Trends in Urban Areas
Urbanization continues to increase steadily and the numbers and sizes of urban areas are growing rapidly, especially in developing countries.

4 Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas
Urbanization – creation and growth of urban areas Urban growth- rate of increase of urban populations Natural increase- more birth’s than death’s 79% - Americans and 50%- world’s people live in urban areas Immigration from rural areas Pushed from rural areas to urban areas Pulled to urban areas from rural areas

5 Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas
Four major trends Proportion of global population living in urban areas is increasing Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming Megacities – more than 10 million - 18 Hypercities – more than 20 million -1 :Tokyo Urban growth slower in developed countries Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized; mostly in developing countries

6 Global Outlook: Satellite Image of Major Urban Areas Throughout the World

7 Typical Daily Traffic Jam of People, Carts, and Other Vehicles in Delhi, India

8 Urbanization in the US Four phases between 1800 and 2008
Migration from rural areas to large central cities Migration from large central cities to SUBURBS and smaller cities Migration from North and East to South and West Migration from cities and suburbs to developed rural areas - EXBURBS

9 Urbanization in the US Environmental problems decreased
better working and housing conditions air/water quality improved better sanitation, better medical care concentration in cities, reduced habitat destruction, protect biodiversity Older cities Deteriorating services Aging infrastructures- streets, bridgeswater supply pipes, sewers,dams. Fallen $1.5 trillion behind

10 Major Urban Areas in the United States Revealed by Satellite Images at Night

11 Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside
Urban sprawl – growth of low-density development Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S. Ample land Federal government loans Low-cost gasoline; highways Tax laws encouraged home ownership State and local zoning laws Multiple political jurisdictions: poor urban planning

12 Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside
Effects of urban sprawl Las Vegas 1973 Las Vegas 2000

13 U.S. Megalopolis of Bowash
500 mile long with 35 million people

Urban Sprawl Land and Biodiversity Water Energy, Air, and Climate Economic Effects Loss of cropland Increased use of surface water and groundwater Increased energy use and waste Decline of downtown business districts Loss of forests and grasslands Figure 22.6 Some undesirable impacts of urban sprawl, or car-dependent development. Question: Which five of these effects do you think are the most harmful? Increased air pollution Increased runoff and flooding Increased unemployment in central city Loss of wetlands Increased greenhouse gas emissions Increased surface water and groundwater pollution Loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitats Loss of tax base in central city Enhanced global warming Decreased natural sewage treatment Fig. 22-6, p. 593

15 Urbanization Has Advantages
Centers of: Economic development Innovation Education Technological advances Jobs Environmental advantages Recycling Reduce stress on wildlife habitats Save energy – mass transportation

16 Urbanization has Disadvantages
Huge ecological footprints Urban populations occupy 2% of the world’s area but consume 75% of the resources and reulting high waste output Lack vegetation Vegetation destroyed –buildings, parking lots , roads no absorbtion of pollutants, shade, aesthetic Water problems flooding, destroy wetlands, severe water shortage

17 Urbanization Has Disadvantages
Concentrate pollution and health problems Excessive noise Different climate and experience light pollution cities warmer, foggier,cloudier than suburbs and nearby rural areas heat generated by industry ,heat -absorbing surfaces create URBAN HEAT ISLAND

18 Natural Capital Degradation: Urban Areas Rarely Are Sustainable Systems
Inputs Outputs Energy Solid wastes Food Waste heat Air pollutants Water Water pollutants Raw materials Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Manufactured goods Noise Money Wealth Figure 22.8 Natural capital degradation: urban areas rarely are sustainable systems (Concept 22-2). The typical city depends on large nonurban areas for huge inputs of matter and energy resources and for large outputs of waste matter and heat and thus have large ecological footprints that extend far beyond their boundaries. According to an analysis by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees, an area 58 times as large as that of London, England, is needed to supply its residents with resources. They estimate that meeting the needs of all the world’s people at the same rate of resource use as that of London would take at least three more planet Earths. Question: How would you apply the four scientific principles of sustainability (see back cover) to lessen some of these impacts? Information Ideas Fig. 22-8, p. 595

19 Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure Earphones at loud level
Noise Levels of Some Common Sounds Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure Noise Levels (in dbA) 85 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Normal breathing Quiet rural area Rainfall Vacuum cleaner Lawn mower Rock music Earphones at loud level Boom cars Quiet room Normal conversation Average factory Chain saw Thunderclap (nearby) Air raid siren Military rifle Whisper Figure 22.9 Noise levels (in decibel-A sound pressure units) of some common sounds. You are being exposed to a sound level high enough to cause permanent hearing damage if you need to raise your voice to be heard above the racket, if a noise causes your ears to ring, or if nearby speech seems muffled. Prolonged exposure to lower noise levels and occasional loud sounds may not damage your hearing, but it can greatly increase internal stress. Question: How many times per day are your ears subjected to noise levels of 85 or more dbA? Fig. 22-9, p. 596

20 Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries
Slums Squatter settlements Shantytown What can governments do ? slow migration from rural areas designate land, supply clean water, composting toilets transportation

21 Case Study: Mexico City
Urban area in crisis Severe air pollution Water pollution 50% Unemployment Deafening noise Overcrowding Traffic congestion Inadequate public transportation 1/3 live in slums (barrios) or squatter settlement Progress – catalytic converters after 1991,no cars in central zone, no leaded gas, green spaces

22 How Does Transportation Affect Urban Environmental Impacts?
Combination of plentiful land, inexpensive fuel, expanding network of highways – dispersed cities, residents depend on motor vehicles for most transportation Compact cities Dispersed cities Hong Kong, China United States Tokyo, Japan Canada Mass transit Australia

23 Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages
Mobility and convenience Jobs in Production and repair of vehicles Supplying fuel Building roads Status symbol Disadvantages Largest source of outdoor air pollution Accidents: death and injury Helped create urban sprawl Traffic congestion

24 Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done
Full-cost pricing: high gasoline taxes - $3.18/liter Gradually phasing in, will spur energy – efficient cars and mass transportation Europe, Japan, Developing Chinese cities Difficult to pass in the United States Strong public opposition Mass transit: not an option in most cities Dispersed nature of the U.S.

25 Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done
Raise parking fees Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major cities Car-sharing Charge a fee to drive into a major city It is working in some cities

26 Some Cities Are Promoting Alternatives to Car Ownership
Bicycles Heavy-rail systems Light-rail systems Buses Rapid-rail system between urban areas

27 TRADE-OFFS Bicycles Advantages Disadvantages Affordable
Little protection in an accident Produce no pollution Do not protect riders from bad weather Quiet Impractical for long trips Require little parking space Figure 22.11 Advantages and disadvantages of bicycles. The key to increased bicycle use is the creation of bicycle-friendly systems, including bike lanes. Question: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important? Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles) Easy to maneuver in traffic Take few resources to make Lack of secure bike parking Fig , p. 600

28 TRADE-OFFS Mass Transit Rail Advantages Disadvantages
Expensive to build and maintain Uses less energy and produces less air pollution than cars Cost-effective only along a densely populated corridor Requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars Commits riders to transportation schedules Figure 22.12 Advantages and disadvantages of mass transit rail systems in urban areas. Question: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important? Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents Reduces car congestion in cities Fig , p. 600

29 TRADE-OFFS Buses Advantages Disadvantages Can be rerouted as needed
Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Can get caught in traffic and add to pollution Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Figure 22.13 Advantages and disadvantages of bus rapid transit (BRT) and conventional bus systems in urban areas. Question: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important? Commits riders to transportation schedules Can greatly reduce car use and air pollution Noisy Fig , p. 601

30 TRADE-OFFS Rapid Rail Advantages Disadvantages
Can reduce travel by car or plane Expensive to run and maintain Must operate along heavily used routes to be profitable Ideal for trips of 200–1,000 kilometers (120–620 miles) Figure 22.14 Advantages and disadvantages of rapid-rail systems between urban areas. Question: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important? Much more energy efficient per rider than a car or plane Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents Fig , p. 601

31 Potential Routes for High-Speed Bullet Trains in the U.S./Canada

32 Case Study: Destroying a Great Mass Transit System in the United States
National City Lines Purchased and dismantled streetcar systems Sales of cars and buses increased Guilty of conspiracy

33 How Important Is Urban Land Use Planning?
Urban land-use planning can help to reduce uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity, and other natural resources.

34 Conventional Land-Use Planning
Encourages future population growth Economic development Revenues: property taxes Environmental and social consequences Zoning – various parcels of land are designated for various uses Mixed-use zoning – promoting neighborhood grocery stores

35 Smart Growth works Smart growth Reduces dependence on cars
Controls and directs sprawl Cuts wasteful resource US cities – Portland, Oregon, greenest city in the US San Francisco, CA Curitiba, Brazil China 80% of country’s arable land designated as fundamental land Europe-high gas tax

36 SOLUTIONS Smart Growth Tools Limits and Regulations Protection Taxes
Preserve existing open space Buy new open space Limit building permits Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels Urban growth boundaries Greenbelts around cities Public review of new development Taxes Zoning Tax land, not buildings Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture) instead of on highest value as developed land Encourage mixed use of housing and small businesses Concentrate development along mass transportation routes Tax Breaks For owners agreeing not to allow certain types of development (conservation easements) Promote high-density cluster housing developments Figure 22.16 Smart growth or new urbanism tools that are used to control urban growth and sprawl. Questions: Which five of these tools do you think are the most important ways to prevent or control urban sprawl? Which, if any, of these tools are used in your community? For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Planning Ecological land-use planning Revitalization and New Growth Environmental impact analysis Revitalize existing towns and cities Integrated regional planning Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities State and national planning Fig , p. 603

37 Preserving and Using Open Space
Urban growth boundary U.S. states: Washington, Oregon, and Tennessee Municipal parks U.S. cities: New York City and San Francisco Greenbelts Canadian cities: Vancouver and Toronto Western European cities Central Park, New York

38 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and Livable?
An ecocity allows people to: choose walking, biking, or mass transit for most transportation needs; recycle or reuse most of their wastes; grow much of their food; and protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding land.

39 New Urbanism Is Growing
Conventional housing development Cluster development – high density housing clustered, rest of the land is common shared space New urbanism, old villageism Walkability Mixed-use and diversity Quality urban design Environmental sustainability Smart transportation Mayfaire, Wilmington,NC ; Yardley, PA ; Kentlands, Gaithersburg MD and others

40 Conventional and Cluster Housing Developments

41 The Ecocity Concept: Cities for People Not Cars
Ecocities or green cities Build and redesign for people Use renewable energy resources Recycle and purify water Use energy and matter resources efficiently Prevent pollution and reduce waste Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste Protect and support biodiversity Urban gardens; farmers markets Zoning and other tools for sustainability

42 Urban Indoor Farming Rooftop greenhouses
Sun Works: designs energy-efficient greenhouses Hydroponic gardens Skyscraper farms Ecological advantages and disadvantages

43 China’s Vision for an Ecocity
2008: Dongtan, China, ecocity, 30 milesfrom Shanghai. 80,000 people by 2020 Carbon neutral city: use renewable resources for energy Reduce the need for cars, or use electric- or hydrogen-powered cars-zero tail pipe emissions. Cars running on fossil fuels will have to be parked outside the city Public transportation – electric light rail, pollution free, fuel cell buses

44 The Ecovillage Movement Is Growing
Eco-hoods – 375 , half in Europe and half in North America 1993: ecovillage in Los Angeles, CA, U.S. What is making it work? Other ecovillages Asheville NC, Ithaca NY Success stories

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