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Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.

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Presentation on theme: "Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program 11 Essentials of Sociology Sociology 9 th Edition 9 th Edition Chapter 14: Population and Urbanization Chapter 14: Population and Urbanization

2 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. A Planet with No Space to Enjoy Life? Population Growth The Development of Cities—Urbanization City Life: Alienation and Community Urban Problems and Social Policy 22 Chapter Overview

3 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Thomas Malthus, an English Economist, believed that the population will grow geometrically while the food supply grows arithmetically (Thomas Theorem) The population will eventually outstrip the food supply 33 Thomas Malthus

4 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. New Malthusians – The world’s population is following an exponential growth curve It took from the beginning of time until 1800 for the world population to reach its first billion. It then took only 130 years to add the 2 nd billion and only another 30 years for the population to reach 3 billion. Eventually, there will not be enough food to feed the rapidly growing population 44 New Malthusians

5 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 Figure 14.1 How Fast is the World’s Population Growing? Source: By the author. Based on Haub and Kent 2008.

6 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Anti-Malthusians believe that Europe’s demographic transition is a more accurate picture of the future 1)Stage 1- Birth rates and death rates are balanced 2)Stage 2 – Births far outnumber deaths (population explosion 3)Stage 3 – Births drop, and births and deaths become balanced 4)Stage 4 – Deaths outnumber births (population shrinkage) Population shrinkage is already occurring in 65 countries 66 Anti-Malthusians

7 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 77 Figure 14.3 The Demographic Transition Note: The standard demographic transition is depicted by Stages 1–3. Stage 4 has been suggested by some Anti-Malthusians.

8 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Why Do Least Industrialized Nations Have So Many Children?  Status of Parenthood – the more children a women has her status is increased  Community Support  Reliance on Children in Old Age – no Social Security exists so people rely on children for physical, emotional, and financial assistance in old age 88 Population Growth Microsoft Images

9 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 99 Figure 14.6 Why the Poor Need Children Children are an economic asset in the Least Industrialized Nations. Based on a survey in Indonesia, this figure shows that boys and girls can be net income earners for their families by the age of 9 or 10. Source: U.N. Fund for Population Activities.

10 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. To illustrate population dynamics, demographers use population pyramids, which depict a country’s population by age and sex.  10 Figure 14.7 Three Population Pyramids Source: Population Today, 26, 9, September 1998:4, 5. Population Pyramids

11 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Demographic Variables – three ways to measure population growth 1.Fertility – the number of children a women actually bears; lowest in Eastern Europe and highest in Middle Africa 2.Mortality – annual deaths per 1,000 people 3.Migration – the Net migration rate is the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants  11 Population Growth Variables

12 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cities, on a large scale, first appeared about 3500 B.C., first in Iraq and Iran, then later in West Africa The key to the origin of cities is the development of efficient agriculture 200 years ago the only city in the world that had a population of more than a million was China The Industrial Revolution led to a big rise in city populations  12 The Rise of Cities

13 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Urbanization refers to masses of people moving to the cities 77 % of the population in the industrialized world lives in cities There are many “pulls” in regards to city life Metropolis – Central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs Megalopolis – Two metropolises and their many suburbs Megacity – A City with 10 million residents  13 The Process of Urbanization

14 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  14 Figure The 20 Largest Cities in the World* *Includes contiguous cities. Los Angeles, for example, includes Long Beach, and New York includes Newark. The populations are projections for year Source: By the author. Based on United Nations 2008:Table 3.

15 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  From Country to City – In 1790 only 5 % of Americans lived in cities; today it is 79 %  From City to City – six of the fastest growing cities are in the West and 4 are in the South  Between Cities – Edge Cities: clusters of buildings and services near the intersections of major highways  Within the City – Gentrification: middle class people moving to rundown areas of a city  From City to Suburb – Suburbanization – Today, over 50 % of Americans live in Suburbs– why?  15 U.S. Urban Patterns

16 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  16

17 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  17 Figure How Urban is Your State? The Rural–Urban Makeup of the United States Note: The most rural state is Vermont (38% urban). The most urban states are California and New Jersey (94% urban). Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009:Table 28.

18 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Desire to Retreat to Safe Haven Urban Crime and Violence is “Push” Cost of Living and Space is “Pull”  18 Rural Rebound

19 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  The Concentric Zone Model – Ernest Burgess – cities expand outward from its center – 5 zones  The Sector Model – Homer Hoyt – a concentric zone can contain several sectors  The Multiple-Nuclei Model – Harris and Ullman – some cities have several centers (i.e. fast food restaurants and clothing stores)  The Peripheral Model – Chauncey Harris – impact of highways on the movement of people away from the cities  19 Models of Urban Growth

20 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Who Lives in the City? – Herbert Gans did participant observation in the West End of Boston and determined 5 different types of people live in the cities:  The Cosmopolites  The Singles  The Ethnic Villagers  The Deprived  The Trapped  20 City Life

21 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Urban Sentiment: Finding a Familiar World  City Divided into Little Worlds  People Create Intimacy by Personalizing Shopping  Spectator Sports Provide Venue Norm of Noninvolvement Diffusion of Responsibility  21 City Life

22 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Many people are leaving the cities and businesses are following Causes the cities tax base to shrink Many people were left behind in this transition and transformed inner cities Many are fleeing to the suburbs and now many suburbs are facing the same problems that cities have  22 Urban Problems and Social Policy

23 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.  23 Figure Urban Growth and Urban Flight

24 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. As cities tax base shrank and building deteriorated, many banks began Redlining (refusing to give loans to housing and business developments in problem areas). This has led to further disinvestment Another urban problem has been many factories moving to other countries where the labor is cheaper which is referred to as Deindustrialization  24 Urban Problems and Social Policy

25 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. There have been various policies enacted which have attempted to resolve urban problems. Urban renewal: Tearing down an area and rebuilding, which can revitalize the area but often times does not benefit its inhabitants Enterprise Zones: A designated area of a city that offers incentives to businesses, such as reduced taxes, to move into the area  25 Urban Revitalization

26 Population and Urbanization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociologists can apply sociological principles to build communities. According to Sociologist William Flanagan (1990) there are three guiding principles 1) Scale-regional and national planning is necessary 2) Livability-cities must be appealing and meet human needs 3) Social Justice-social policy must be evaluated by how it affects people  26 Public Sociology


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