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New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as:

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Presentation on theme: "New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as:"— Presentation transcript:

1 New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: –Plant invasion –Species succession –Climax vegetation Urban ecology: groups of people occupy over time different areas of the city like different plant species Urban ecology: groups of people occupy over time different areas of the city like different plant species Burgess said the zones were rings… Burgess said the zones were rings…

2 2. The Concentric-Zone Model Proposed by Burgess – A sociologist at the University of Chicago: 1925 book titled The City Proposed by Burgess – A sociologist at the University of Chicago: 1925 book titled The City Based on a study of land use patterns and social group dynamics in Chicago Based on a study of land use patterns and social group dynamics in Chicago Geographically the city was visualized like 5 or 6 major rings, such as from a cross-section of a tree Geographically the city was visualized like 5 or 6 major rings, such as from a cross-section of a tree

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4 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. A model with five zones. –Zone 1 The central business district (CBD) The central business district (CBD) Outer portion occupied by commercial/industrial enterprises; Outer portion occupied by commercial/industrial enterprises; Extension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern Extension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern

5 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. A model with five zones. –Zone 2 Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use Rooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segment Rooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segment Often includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began here Often includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began here Usually called the transition zone, think “social disorganization” Usually called the transition zone, think “social disorganization”

6 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. A model with five zones. –Zone 3 The “workingmen’s quarters” The “workingmen’s quarters” Solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2 Solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2 More stable than the transition zone around the CBD More stable than the transition zone around the CBD Often characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettos Often characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettos Spreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing Spreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing

7 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. A model with five zones. –Zone 4 Middle class area of “better housing” residential hotels and better apartments; Middle class area of “better housing” residential hotels and better apartments; Established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar network Established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar network Commute to work in the CBD Commute to work in the CBD

8 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. A model with five zones. –Zone 5 Consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbs Consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbs Located either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad lines Located either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad lines Spacious lots and large houses Spacious lots and large houses From here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4 From here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4

9 3. The Sector Model This model proposed by a land economist working for U.S. federal government named Homer Hoyt This model proposed by a land economist working for U.S. federal government named Homer Hoyt Based his model on a huge study of housing values in more than 100 cities (1939) Based his model on a huge study of housing values in more than 100 cities (1939) He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster

10 3. The Sector Model But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric zone model, but direction away from CBD But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric zone model, but direction away from CBD Wedge-shaped land use zones: like pieces of pie Wedge-shaped land use zones: like pieces of pie Does the “side” of town matter in an San Jose? Does the “side” of town matter in an San Jose?

11 Sector model Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors –Moves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildings –Will progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industry –Will move along the route of fastest transportation –Will move toward open space

12 Sector model As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in –Middle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestige –Low-rent areas fill remaining areas –Moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low There are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model There are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model He had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile He had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile

13 3. The Sector Model (continued) 1.CBD 2.Wholesale & Light Manufacturing 3.Low-income Residential 4.Middle-Income Residential 5.High-Income Residential SOURCE: en/conc6en/sectornuclei.html en/conc6en/sectornuclei.html Adapted from: H. Carter (1995) Urban Geography 4 th Edition. London: Arnold, p Which side is high-class residential? Why? Which side is high-class residential? Why? Why is lower-class residential where it is shown? Why is lower-class residential where it is shown? Discuss: Concept of “environmental justice” Discuss: Concept of “environmental justice”

14 3. The Sector Model (continued) This theory is particularly good for residential land use This theory is particularly good for residential land use Both the concentric zone and sector models are monocentric representations of urban areas Both the concentric zone and sector models are monocentric representations of urban areas How realistic are they for an auto-age metropolis like Tucson or San Jose? How realistic are they for an auto-age metropolis like Tucson or San Jose?

15 4. Multiple Nuclei Model Developed by two geographers: Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman in 1945 based on Seattle, Washington Developed by two geographers: Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman in 1945 based on Seattle, Washington Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a single core but have several nodes Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a single core but have several nodes CBD need not be at the center (!) CBD need not be at the center (!) Proximity to other locations (universities, airport, malls) can generate clusters of high- intensity land use Proximity to other locations (universities, airport, malls) can generate clusters of high- intensity land use

16 4. Multiple Nuclei Model 1. CBD 2. Wholesale & Light Manufacturing 3. Low-income Residential 4. Middle-Income Residential 5. High-Income Residential 6. Heavy Manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District (Mall) 8. Residential Suburb 9. Industrial Suburb SOURCE: n/sectornuclei.html n/sectornuclei.html

17 POP QUIZ Name ___________ Name that model: Proposed by a land economist, Homer Hoyt, it posits that different categories of housing occupy wedge-shaped areas radiating out from the CBD… Sector Model

18 Political economy and urban sociology Idea of scarcity of resources, not enough of generally coveted goods and benefits society produces for everyone to get as much as they want, we can look upon outcome of competition for urban space in which wealthy individuals and institutions prevail in different light Idea of scarcity of resources, not enough of generally coveted goods and benefits society produces for everyone to get as much as they want, we can look upon outcome of competition for urban space in which wealthy individuals and institutions prevail in different light

19 Political economy and urban sociology Political economy- study how political decision-making and social policy articulates with economic interests of different social classes, how it advantages or disadvantages particular groups of actors. Political economy- study how political decision-making and social policy articulates with economic interests of different social classes, how it advantages or disadvantages particular groups of actors.

20 Social Change A series of urban riots in United States during the decade of 1960s, economic decline of central cities, and loss of urban industrial jobs attracted attention of critical urban analysis (254). A series of urban riots in United States during the decade of 1960s, economic decline of central cities, and loss of urban industrial jobs attracted attention of critical urban analysis (254).

21 Marxist perspective Critical of traditional urban sociology, of ecologists, and of those working in urbanism tradition because nothing in that body of work had anticipated urban uprisings. Critical of traditional urban sociology, of ecologists, and of those working in urbanism tradition because nothing in that body of work had anticipated urban uprisings.

22 Criticisms of Ecological Model What Park, Burgess, Wirth, and others in ecological school and urban tradition should have focused on was how a particular set of urban structures and effects were produced by capitalism. What Park, Burgess, Wirth, and others in ecological school and urban tradition should have focused on was how a particular set of urban structures and effects were produced by capitalism.

23 Criticisms of Ecological Model Capitalism created forms of land-use and massive cities that instilled feelings of alienation and anomie. Urban environment itself was in effect -- a product of a capitalist Industrial Revolution and its aftermath -- rather than a cause. Capitalism created forms of land-use and massive cities that instilled feelings of alienation and anomie. Urban environment itself was in effect -- a product of a capitalist Industrial Revolution and its aftermath -- rather than a cause.

24 Criticisms of Ecological Model Key to understanding urban problems was to focus on economic conditions rather than size, density, or ecology (254). In terms of social action cities/ecologies are not real agents that create social traditions or social change in the same sense that individual capitalists, corporations, or collective movement based on class interests are. Key to understanding urban problems was to focus on economic conditions rather than size, density, or ecology (254). In terms of social action cities/ecologies are not real agents that create social traditions or social change in the same sense that individual capitalists, corporations, or collective movement based on class interests are.


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