British New Towns Post World War II Britain Planning Act (1948): rebuilt & avoid excesses of American suburban growth Development Corps w/ direct Treasury finance By 1971 – 28 towns (1,415,000 people) - 182,000 new houses; - over 35 mil. Sq. ft. of new factory space
American Influence Design Implications – Radburn Plan Greenbelt Cities New Towns (?) – Reston, New York & Columbia, Maryland
Housing Market Industrial City – introduced generalized housing market Before Twenties Boom – Prior to economic boom, two-thirds of American population judged to be poorly served by private market (“the Housers”)
1920s – Changing Urban Form Streetcar Suburbs – radial development, lower density & greater dispersion In 1920s, for the first time, suburbs grew faster than the central cities – much faster Automobile’s contribution – “The city is doomed... We shall solve the city problem by leaving the city.” Henry Ford Policy related to home ownership...
Influence on the shape of the city – filling in the radius w/ lower densities Streetcar suburb – Av. Lot size 3,000 sf Auto suburb – Av. Lot size 5,000 sf Pop. Density fell from 20,000 sq. mile to 10,000 sq mile in auto suburb
Depression Era Impact i. Construction Industry – fell 95% (’28-’33) ii. Mortgage Defaults – by 1933, 50% technically in default