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Earth Science, 12e Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 22.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science, 12e Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science, 12e Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 22

2 After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to: Discuss the principle of parallax and explain how it is used to measure the distance to a star. List and describe the major intrinsic properties of stars. Describe the different types of nebulae. Describe the most plausible model for stellar evolution and list the stages in the life cycle of a star. Describe the possible final states that a star may assume after it consumes its nuclear fuel and collapses. List and describe the major types of galaxies. Describe the big bang theory of the origin of the universe. Learning Objectives

3 Properties of stars  Distance Measuring a star’s distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star’s position due to the orbital motion of Earth Measured as an angle Near stars have the largest parallax Largest parallax is less than one second of arc

4 Properties of stars  Distance Distances to the stars are very large Units of measurement Kilometers or astronomical units are too cumbersome to use Light-year is used most often Distance that light travels in 1 year One light-year is 9.5 trillion km (5.8 trillion miles) Other methods for measuring distance are also used

5 Properties of stars  Stellar brightness Controlled by three factors Size Temperature Distance Magnitude Measure of a star’s brightness

6 Properties of stars  Stellar brightness Magnitude Two types of measurement Apparent magnitude » Brightness when a star is viewed from Earth » Decreases with distance » Numbers are used to designate magnitudes – dim stars have large numbers and negative numbers are also used

7 Properties of stars  Stellar brightness Magnitude Two types of measurement Absolute magnitude » “True” or intrinsic brightness of a star » Brightness at a standard distance of 32.6 light-years » Most stars’ absolute magnitudes are between –5 and +15

8 Properties of stars  Color and temperature Hot star Temperature above 30,000 K Emits short-wavelength light Appears blue Cool star Temperature less than 3,000 K Emits longer-wavelength light Appears red

9 Properties of stars  Color and temperature Between 5,000 and 6,000 K Stars appear yellow e.g., Sun  Binary stars and stellar mass Binary stars Two stars orbiting one another Stars are held together by mutual gravitation Both orbit around a common center of mass

10 Properties of stars  Binary stars and stellar mass Binary stars Visual binaries are resolved telescopically More than 50% of the stars in the universe are binary stars Used to determine stellar mass Stellar mass Determined using binary stars – the center of mass is closest to the most massive star

11 Binary stars orbit each other around their common center of mass Figure 24.4

12 Properties of stars  Binary stars and stellar mass Stellar mass Mass of most stars is between 1/10 and 50 times the mass of the Sun

13 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram  Shows the relation between stellar Brightness (absolute magnitude) and Temperature  Diagram is made by plotting (graphing) each star’s Luminosity (brightness) and Temperature

14 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram  Parts of an H-R diagram Main-sequence stars 90% of all stars Band through the center of the H-R diagram Sun is in the main sequence Giants (or red giants) Very luminous Large Upper-right on the H-R diagram

15 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram  Parts of an H-R diagram Giants (or red giants) Very large giants are called supergiants Only a few percent of all stars White dwarfs Fainter than main-sequence stars Small (approximately the size of Earth) Lower-central area on the H-R diagram Not all are white in color Perhaps 10% of all stars

16 Idealized Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Figure 24.7

17 Variable stars  Stars that fluctuate in brightness  Types of variable stars Pulsating variables Fluctuate regularly in brightness Expand and contract in size Eruptive variables Explosive event Sudden brightening Called a nova

18 Interstellar matter  Between the stars is “the vacuum of space”  Nebula Cloud of dust and gases Two major types of nebulae Bright nebula Glows if it is close to a very hot star Two types of bright nebulae » Emission nebula » Reflection nebula

19 A faint blue reflection nebula in the Pleiades star cluster Figure 24.9

20 Interstellar matter  Nebula Two major types of nebulae Dark nebula Not close to any bright star Appear dark Contains the material that forms stars and planets

21 Stellar evolution  Stars exist because of gravity  Two opposing forces in a star are Gravity – contracts Thermal nuclear energy – expands  Stages Birth In dark, cool, interstellar clouds Gravity contracts cloud and temperature rises Radiates long-wavelength (red) light Becomes a protostar

22 Stellar evolution  Stages Protostar Gravitational contraction of gaseous cloud continues Core reaches 10 million K Hydrogen nuclei fuse Become helium nuclei Process is called hydrogen burning Energy is released Outward pressure increases Outward pressure balanced by gravity pulling in Star becomes a stable main-sequence star

23 Stellar evolution  Stages Main-sequence stage Stars age at different rates Massive stars use fuel faster and exist for only a few million years Small stars use fuel slowly and exist for perhaps hundreds of billions of years 90% of a star’s life is in the main sequence

24 Stellar evolution  Stages Red giant stage Hydrogen burning migrates outward Star’s outer envelope expands Surface cools Surface becomes red Core is collapsing as helium is converted to carbon Eventually all nuclear fuel is used Gravity squeezes the star

25 Stellar evolution  Stages Burnout and death Final stage depends on mass Possibilities Low-mass star » 0.5 solar mass » Red giant collapses » Becomes a white dwarf

26 Stellar evolution  Stages Burnout and death Final stage depends on mass Possibilities Medium-mass star » Between 0.5 and 3 solar masses » Red giant collapses » Planetary nebula forms » Becomes a white dwarf

27 H-R diagram showing stellar evolution Figure 24.11

28 Stellar evolution  Stages Burnout and death Final stage depends on mass Possibilities Massive star » Over 3 solar masses » Short life span » Terminates in a brilliant explosion called a supernova » Interior condenses » May produce a hot, dense object that is either a neutron star or a black hole

29 Stellar remnants  White dwarf Small (some no larger than Earth) Dense Can be more massive than the Sun Spoonful weighs several tons Atoms take up less space Electrons displaced inward Called degenerate matter Hot surface Cools to become a black dwarf

30 Stellar remnants  Neutron star Forms from a more massive star Star has more gravity Squeezes itself smaller Remnant of a supernova Gravitational force collapses atoms Electrons combine with protons to produce neutrons Small size

31 Stellar remnants  Neutron star Pea-size sample Weighs 100 million tons Same density as an atomic nucleus Strong magnetic field First one discovered in early 1970s Pulsar (pulsating radio source) Found in the Crab nebula (remnant of an A.D supernova)

32 Crab Nebula in the constellation Taurus Figure 24.14

33 Stellar remnants  Black hole More dense than a neutron star Intense surface gravity lets no light escape As matter is pulled into it Becomes very hot Emits X-rays Likely candidate is Cygnus X-1, a strong X-ray source

34 Galaxies  Milky Way Galaxy Structure Determined by using radio telescopes Large spiral galaxy About 100,000 light-years wide Thickness at the galactic nucleus is about 10,000 light-years Three spiral arms of stars Sun is 30,000 light-years from the center

35 Face-on view of the Milky Way Galaxy Figure A

36 Edge-on view of the Milky Way Galaxy Figure B

37 Galaxies  Milky Way Galaxy Rotation Around the galactic nucleus Outermost stars move the slowest Sun rotates around the galactic nucleus once about every 200 million years Halo surrounds the galactic disk Spherical Very tenuous gas Numerous globular clusters

38 Galaxies  Other galaxies Existence was first proposed in mid-1700s by Immanuel Kant Four basic types of galaxies Spiral galaxy Arms extending from nucleus About 30% of all galaxies Large diameter up to 125,000 light-years Contains both young and old stars e.g., Milky Way

39 The Andromeda Galaxy is an example of a large spiral galaxy Figure 24.20

40 Galaxies  Other galaxies Four basic types of galaxies Barred spiral galaxy Stars arranged in the shape of a bar Generally quite large About 10% of all galaxies Elliptical galaxy Ellipsoidal shape About 60% of all galaxies Most are smaller than spiral galaxies; however, they are also the largest known galaxies

41 A barred spiral galaxy Figure 24.22

42 Galaxies  Other galaxies Four basic types of galaxies Irregular galaxy Lacks symmetry About 10% of all galaxies Contains mostly young stars e.g., Magellanic Clouds

43 Galaxies  Galactic cluster Group of galaxies Some contain thousands of galaxies Local Group Our own group of galaxies Contains at least 28 galaxies Supercluster Huge swarm of galaxies May be the largest entity in the universe

44 Red shifts  Doppler effect Change in the wavelength of light emitted by an object due to its motion Movement away stretches the wavelength Longer wavelength Light appears redder Movement toward “squeezes” the wavelength Shorter wavelength Light shifted toward the blue

45 Red shifts  Doppler effect Amount of the Doppler shift indicates the rate of movement Large Doppler shift indicates a high velocity Small Doppler shift indicates a lower velocity  Expanding universe Most galaxies exhibit a red Doppler shift Moving away

46 Raisin bread analogy of an expanding universe Figure 24.24

47 Red shifts  Expanding universe Most galaxies exhibit a red Doppler shift Far galaxies Exhibit the greatest shift Greater velocity Discovered in 1929 by Edwin Hubble Hubble’s Law – the recessional speed of galaxies is proportional to their distance Accounts for red shifts

48 Big Bang theory  Accounts for galaxies moving away from us  Universe was once confined to a “ball” that was Supermassive Dense Hot

49 Big Bang theory  Big Bang marks the inception of the universe Occurred about 15 billion years ago All matter and space was created  Matter is moving outward  Fate of the universe Two possibilities Universe will last forever Outward expansion will stop and gravitational contraction will follow

50 Big Bang theory  Fate of the universe Final fate depends on the average density of the universe If the density is more than the critical density, then the universe would contract Current estimates point to less than the critical density and predict an ever-expanding, or open, universe


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