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CAESAR AUGUSTUS AND IMPERIAL ROME Week Five. ance/ence = state or quality of What suffix finishes these words? eleg____radi____ persever_____.

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Presentation on theme: "CAESAR AUGUSTUS AND IMPERIAL ROME Week Five. ance/ence = state or quality of What suffix finishes these words? eleg____radi____ persever_____."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAESAR AUGUSTUS AND IMPERIAL ROME Week Five

2 ance/ence = state or quality of What suffix finishes these words? eleg____radi____ persever_____

3 ped = foot pedestrianpedicurepedal

4 CAESAR AUGUSTUS AND IMPERIAL ROME Week Five

5 I. The Altar of Augustan Peace  In 27 BCE, the Senate decreed that Augustus be honored by the construction of an altar to Pax, the new goddess of peace.

6 Pax Romana or Pacification Romana?

7 II. The Price of Empire, A. Winners  Optimates: members of the traditional Roman oligarchy  Equites: the nouveau riche  Tax collectors B. Losers  Slaves  Provincials

8 Spartacus (1960)

9 “I am Spartacus”

10 “I am Spartacus,” Part II

11 II. The Price of Empire C. Populares Political leaders who appealed to the masses 1. Tiberius Gracchus Redistributed land Undermined the Senate Assassinated by senators 2. Gaius Gracchus Younger brother who reintroduced reforms Extended citizenship Also assassinated

12 III. The End of the Republic A. Personal armies  Shifting allegiances B. Civil Wars  Populares (led by Marius) revolt against optimates (led by Sulla)  Optimates under Sulla win  Dictatorship gives way to republican rule after Sulla wearies of butchery, but tensions remain Sulla entering Rome

13 III. The End of the Republic C. The First Triumvirate  Political infighting leads to an alliance between Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar  Alliance doesn’t hold— Caesar crosses the Rubicon, which initiates a bloody civil war Crossing the Rubicon

14 mater = mother motheralma matermatrimony

15 manu = hand manual labor manuscript manufacture

16 Exam next Monday  Bring a blue book  25% of final grade  Format 5 identifications (who, what, where, when, and significance) One essay  Sample themes Conceptions of freedom in the ancient world

17 Battle of Marathon  The Battle of Marathon took place in the fifth century BCE in ancient Greece. A vast Persian army threatened Sparta, Athens, Corinth, and other Greek poleis. The Greeks, underarmed and outnumbered, defeated the Persians at Marathon. This battle was significant because it convinced Athenians of the invincibility of their fighting strategy (the hoplite phalanx), the superiority of their culture, and the efficiency of democratic government as instituted by Cleisthenes.

18 The Career of Julius Caesar

19 III. The End of the Republic D. The Second Triumvirate  Julius Caesar introduces democratic reform, but then declares himself perpetual dictator  Assassination on the Ides of March  Second alliance between Mark Antony, Ledipus, and Octavian  Octavian emerges Octavian

20 Julius Caesar (1953)

21 IV. The Augustan Age and Pax Romana A. Caesar Augustus  An unexpected leader  Rise to power: instinct for power and publicity; determination; and had the right name  Absolute rule: Granted by the Senate in 27 BCE; any remnant of republican rule was a sham

22 IV. The Augustan Age and Pax Romana B. The Empire Renewed 1. Senate Subordinated to Caesar’s interests “Men fit for slaves!” 2. Equites Expanded ranks of wealth businessmen More room for upward mobility 3. Citizens Treated veterans well Placated the poor with food and entertainment

23 Ben-Hur chariot race

24 IV. The Augustan Age and Pax Romana 4. Divine Augustus  Restoration of religion and traditional values  Emperor worship 5. Poetry and patronage  Horace and Virgil  The Aeneid (19 BCE) 6. Geographical expansion  From Europe to Africa to Judea Aeneas’ journey

25 hydro/aqua = water hydroplanehydroelectric aquarium

26 cur = run curriculum cursive current

27 Dido and Aeneas (early 1700s)

28

29 B. After Augustus  Death “Have I played the part well? Then applaud as I exit.” “Behold, I found Rome of clay, and leave her to you as marble.”  Succession Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero  Expansion of boundaries Tile mosaic of Christian persecution under Nero

30 The Roman Empire to 117 C.E.

31 Epilogue  Augustan peace vs. the peace of Christ


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