Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Middle Ages 600-1450 Review Background Information The period of study for this unit is between 600 AD and 1450 AD with the main focus on Europe. With.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages 600-1450 Review Background Information The period of study for this unit is between 600 AD and 1450 AD with the main focus on Europe. With."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Middle Ages Review

3 Background Information The period of study for this unit is between 600 AD and 1450 AD with the main focus on Europe. With the collapse of the Roman Empire, new political, social, andeconomic systems developed. The vast empire split into a deeply fragmented Western Europe and a thriving Eastern Europe (Byzantine Empire). In essence, theByzantine Empire, which lasted about 1000 years (395 to 1450), was a remnant of the Roman state.

4 Background Information Under the Roman Empire there was stability, security and a centralized form of authority relative to Middle Ages Europe. The fall of the Roman Empire plunged WesternEurope into a period of deterioration while the eastern part of the Roman Empire survived and thrived and was referred to as the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe,the loss of central government fragmented society. As central government collapsed, farmers and peasants turned to powerful nobles for protection. The ChristianChurch served as one of the unifying forces in a disrupted Western Europe.

5 Background Information Some historians date the fall of the Western Roman Empire as 476 AD when the Germanic leader Odoacer overthrew the Emperor Romulus Augustus and proclaimed himself King of Italy. The Eastern part of the Roman Empire continued under leadership of emperors from Byzantium at the center of trade routes and prosperity. This eastern portion was the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire contributed political and intellectual ideas to medieval Western Europe by preserving the fundamental concepts of Roman law. Byzantium also preserved Hellenic (Greek) culture.

6 Background Information The economic, political, and social systems that developed after the fall of the Roman Empire in medieval Europe came about as a consequence of the civil disorder, economic instability and a lack of centralized authority. This led to the development of feudalism and the manorial system which allowed societies to adapt to a symbiotic relationship between the landowners and those that did not own land. Eventually, powerful landowners established kingdoms which laid the foundation for the development of nation-states.

7 Background Information Towards the latter part of this time period (600 to 1450), the Crusades, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years War contributed to the end of the Middle Ages. The Crusades allowed knowledge still held in the Hellenistic libraries of the Islamic world to be reintroduced to Europe. The inability of the Catholic Church to combat the bubonic plague eventually fostered a sense of doubt and skepticism in the unifying authority of the Church. The Hundred Years’ War between England and France gave rise to early nationalism.

8 Background Information Thomas Aquinas: St. Thomas Aquinas was a prominent Catholic philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages in Western Europe. His key work, "Summa Theologica", blended Christian doctrine with the newly reintroduced works of Aristotle. Some of the first universities established during this time were devoted to studying logic, grammar, and Aristotle’s ideas. This movement and philosophical tradition, known as "Scholasticism", set the stage for later intellectual revolutions in Europe.

9 Key Understandings New political, economic, and social structures emerge upon the collapse of existing political systems to provide protection and services to people in a society.

10 Key Vocab Infrastructure- the most basic level of organizational structure in a complex body or system that serves as a foundation for the rest Nationalism- the desire to achieve political independence, especially by a country under foreign control or by a people with a separate identity and culture but no state of their own

11 Key Vocab Schism- a major split within an established religious denomination, Kingdom- a state or people ruled over by a king or queen Nation- a community of people or peoples living in a defined territory and organized under a single government

12 What were the causes and effects of the spread of Christianity, the decline of Rome and the formation of medieval Europe from 600 to 1450? Spread of Christianity ◦Council of Nicea: sets basic tenets of Christianity ◦Eastern Orthodoxy develops after the schism between that church and the Catholic Church ◦Church develops in power during the Middle Ages in Europe

13 What were the causes and effects of the spread of Christianity, the decline of Rome and the formation of medieval Europe from 600 to 1450? Decline of Rome and formation of medieval Europe ◦Invaders overrun the empire (Mongols, Huns, ◦Franks, etc.) ◦Inflation ◦Roman army cannot defend the empire ◦People’s loyalty and service to the empire declines ◦Roman politics decay – empire is split; an additional capital established (Constantinople), but this does not save it. ◦People turn to the Church and lords for security and protection ◦Development of feudalism and strong Church authority in medieval Europe

14 What was the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe? Disruption of trade that leads to collapse of businesses, destruction of economic centers, and scarcity of money as a result of invasions Downfall of cities as centers of administration Shift to a rural population as Roman citizens abandoned destroyed cities

15 What was the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe? Decline of learning since Germanic invaders could not read or write Loss of a common language as Latin changes and different dialects develop Change in the concept of government from one of loyalty to public government and written law shifts to governance through unwritten laws and traditions

16 How did the development of Christianity act as a unifying social and political factor in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire? Medieval EuropeByzantine Empire Missionaries spread Christianity Authority in medieval Europe based on theChurch Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III,which shows the close connection between church and state Constantine relocates the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state

17 How did the development of Christianity act as a unifying social and political factor in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire? Medieval EuropeByzantine Empire Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars Middle Ages seen as the “Age of Faith” Church creates a system of justice (canon law) Missionary Saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs

18 Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church In 1378, 2 Popes were elected at the same time. 1 was Italian, and he led from Rome, while the 2nd Pope made his holy capital in Avignon, France.

19 Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church This “schism” or (split), over which of the 2 Popes was the “true” Pope, lasted for 39 years. It divided the church, and nations. It was also very confusing to the people.

20 Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church In 1378, 2 Popes were elected at the same time. 1 was Italian, and he led from Rome, while the 2nd Pope made his holy capital in Avignon, France.

21 What are the characteristics of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy? Roman CatholicismEastern Orthodoxy Pope has authority over all other bishops, kings, and emperors Services conducted in Latin Priests cannot marry Divorce is not permitted Patriarch and other bishops lead the church as a collective group Services conducted in Greek or local languages Priests may marry Divorce is allowed under certain circumstances

22 What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? Feudalism-Reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe. Contributing factors – Fall of the Roman Empire leaves a gap in protection and services to people, invaders overrun communities, people turn to lords for their protection

23 What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? Characteristics – Lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal relationship.

24 What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? Manorialism- Smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Land = wealth

25 What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? Contributing factors – Model of villas in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman empire as well as threats from invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a manor.

26 What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? Characteristics – Manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors.

27 How did Islam impact Europe politically, economically, and socially? Moors occupy Spain for over 700 years and promote a golden age in art, literature, science, and mathematics. Defeat by the Franks at Tours in 732 stops the Muslim invasion of Europe

28 How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe interact? Europe ◦Muslim invasion of Spain in the 700s leads to a golden age in scientific and artistic achievements ◦Creation of the Muslim state of al-Andalus ◦Córdoba had eclectic mix of Muslim, Jewish and Christian populations that by 1100 resulted in a population of 500,000

29 How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe interact? Reconquista drives out the Muslims in the late 1400s Reconquista Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between 600s and 900s lead disorder and suffering that forces people to look to local rulers for security. Leads to the rise of feudalism. Inquisition in Spain leads to torture and expulsion of Muslims and Jews Inquisition

30 How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? Crusades ◦Failure lessened the power of the Pope ◦Casualties weakened the feudal nobility ◦Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes that begins the Era of Exploration.

31 How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? Black Death ◦Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave in search of work; peasant rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages ◦Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention

32 How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? Hundred Years War ◦Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France. ◦Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war; democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse”

33 How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? Great Schism ◦Split in the Catholic Church as two popes claim authority – one in Avignon and the other in Rome; both excommunicate each other from the Church.

34 How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? Great Schism ◦Authority of the pope as head of the Church challenged by John Wycliffe, who believes that God is sole authority, and Jan Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is higher than the pope’s authority. Beginning of challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church that leads to the Reformation.

35 What has been the impact of political and legal ideas contained in historic documents including Justinian’s Code of Laws and the Magna Carta? Justinian’s Code of Laws Magna Carta Byzantine Law code (529 AD) influenced European laws The eastern Byzantine Empire carries on the Roman law while the western part of the empire goes through a rather lawless time Political ideas – Limited power of the nobility Legal ideas – No one is above the law

36 What are the political philosophies of significant individuals including Thomas Aquinas? Truth is known through reason and faith

37 What have been the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions including Christianity and the development of monotheism? Through the Middle Ages, the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.

38 Religious Influence The Medieval Church as a unifying force: Shared beliefs in the teachings of the church Provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they belonged. At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings and festive celebrations. Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor. The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.

39 Religious Influence The Medieval Church as a unifying force: ◦Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals ◦Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor. ◦The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.


Download ppt "Middle Ages 600-1450 Review Background Information The period of study for this unit is between 600 AD and 1450 AD with the main focus on Europe. With."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google