Presentation on theme: "Session 3 – Big Bang Theory Pt.2 In this session we will continue our examination of the Big Bang theory and looking at problems associated with the model."— Presentation transcript:
Session 3 – Big Bang Theory Pt.2 In this session we will continue our examination of the Big Bang theory and looking at problems associated with the model Keep in mind, we can only cover a portion of the material out there! There is always more that you can study on this topic
The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) One observation every cosmological model must be able to explain is the CMBR of our universe This is the temperature of space itself which is very uniform at 2.725 degrees Kelvin, which is pretty darn cold when you convert it to Fahrenheit; it comes out to - 454.765 degrees F
This background radiations (which was accidently found) is theorized (by the Big Bang) to not be from any source, but remnant from the Big Bang itself The Big Bang did predict this remnant energy would exist if it were true
The predictions made by big bang advocates ranged from 3k (which is fairly close to the actual temperature) all the way to 50k (which is dramatically off.) Keep in mind, it is possible that the CMBR is actually caused by a local phenomenon, but we can give this one to them – This was a prediction that the Big Bang made that came true (but that’s not the end of the story when it comes to the CMBR)
The CMBR is terribly uniform throughout the entire universe, and the Big Bang model has not had enough time to cause the uniformity This is caused the horizon problem and is the light time travel problem for the Big Bang
Formation of galaxies and stars The theories behind stellar evolution and the life cycles of stars is far to detailed to go into here We will look at a few problems with the ideas, not only pointed out be creationists who reject the Big Bang, but by secular scientists themselves
Star formation The big bang tries to explain the formation, and evolution of the different stars we see in the universe
The current estimate (although near impossible to tell) for the number of stars is one quintillion (1,000,000,000,000,000,000) The Big Bang says stars are born in nebula (gas clouds) in outer space and from there (depending on factors like size) have a life cycle that they play out over the next billions of years
The problem we are presented with in astronomy is the astronomical time frames we are dealing with that make it impossible to ever observe anything like this Some young earth creation cosmologies do use similar models of stellar evolution to explain the types of stars, while some say God created a variety and that’s it
Possible problems with star formation There are some problems with getting the initial phase of star formation going Gas clouds don’t naturally condense together without something to get that motion and condensing started Some say supernovas can do the job, but then we have the chicken and the egg problem of which happens first
Galaxy formation in the Big Bang Dr. James Trefil, professor of physics at George Mason University, believes in the big bang theory, but he also admits that there are some problems associated with it: The problem with galaxies forming in the Big Bang is… the simply shouldn’t have Look what secular astronomers say:
“There shouldn’t be galaxies out there at all, and even if there are galaxies, they shouldn’t be grouped together the way they are… The problem of explaining the existence of galaxies has proved to be one of the thorniest in cosmology. By all rights, they just shouldn’t be there, yet there they sit. It’s hard to convey the depth of the frustration that this simple fact induces among scientists.”
The problem is the Big Bang would create a completely equal and smooth universe and distribution of mass/energy Dr. Danny Faulkner : "The cosmology popular today supposes that early in the universe large clouds of gas began to form. These clouds were millions of light years across and slowly condensed to form galaxies. It is recognized that a perfectly smooth Big Bang cannot give rise to these structures”
Dr. Donald Young“ No natural way has been found to explain the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies. An explosion should produce, at best, an outward spray of gas and radiation. This gas should continue expanding, not form intricate planets, stars, and entire galaxies.” Summing up the problem for star and galaxy formation
Dr. Russell Humphrey: “In the alleged big bang's beginning, he said (referencing someone else), the intense gravity from all that concentrated matter would cause it to be deep in a black hole, out of which the matter should not be able to emerge. Back-of- envelope calculations supported his point. If our understanding of the implications of the big bang were right, it could never happen!” Big Bang Black Hole
Antimatter and the Big Bang The atom is the smallest building block of the universe and consists of three different parts Protons - The part of an atom that is positively charged and exists in the nucleus
Electrons - The part of an atom that is negatively charged and outside the nucleus Neutrons - The part of an atom that is neutrally charged and exists in the nucleus In particle physics, antimatter is the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles.
For example, in a standard atom the electrons are negatively charged, in a atom of antimatter however we have what is called a positron, which is a positively charge electron. Now the atom still has to be neutral so what else has to happen in antimatter?
The protons, which in normal atom is positively charged becomes an antiproton in antimatter which is a negatively charged proton. Positron – An electron with a positive charge Antiproton – A proton with a negative charge Nine atoms of antihydrogen were actually created in the lab for the first time in 1995.
The modern day theory of antimatter began in 1928 with a paper by Paul Dirac, however the term “antimatter” was coined back in 1898 in two letters written to Nature by Arthur Schuster. When matter is created by means of energy like the Big Bang proposes there should be an equal amount of matter and antimatter that is generated
The problem is that there has been very little antimatter found in the universe. Almost all of the matter in the universe is normal matter. This problem has been coined the “Baryon number problem.”
Dr. Jason Lisle “experimental physics tells us that whenever matter is created from energy, such a reaction also produces antimatter” The first problem that the idea of antimatter presents to the Big Bang is there is no nearly enough if all matter came from energy during the Big Bang, but that’s not the only problem
If there were equal amount created from the energy of the Big Bang, when they come in contact with each other, they “explode” and turn back into energy (this would be a never ending cycle) Antimatter casts doubt on the Big Bang model of the universe
Monopoles and the Big Bang Magnet - An object that generates a magnetic field As everyone knows, magnets have two sides to them (North Pole and South Pole)
What happens when you take a magnet and cut it right down the middle where the division between north and south is? You get two magnets that both have a north pole and a south pole on them! You can’t get just one or the other
atleast you cannot normally get just a north or just a south pole Monopole – A magnet that only has one pole, and is either North or South, but not both There are certain conditions that can create a one sided magnet (called a Monopole) Monopole – A magnet that only has one pole, and is either North or South, but not both
The conditions for creating these monopoles would have been present at the time of the Big Bang What’s the problem? The Big Bang should have created these magnetic monopoles (many of them) but we can’t find (or detect) any in our universe They keep saying we’ve almost found them though, however that works
Dr. Jason Lisle: “Particle physicists claim that the high temperature conditions of the big bang should have created magnetic monopoles. Since monopoles are predicted to be stable, they should have lasted to this day. Yet, despite considerable searching, monopoles have not been found. Where are the monopoles? The fact that we don’t find any monopoles strongly suggests that the universe never was that hot. This indicates that there never was a big bang.”
Population III stars and the Big Bang At the supposed beginning of the Big Bang, the Big Bang would have only been able to created Hydrogen (the lightest element) and helium (the second lightest element) All other elements according to the theory come about through nuclear fusion in the cores of stars (and supernova explosions)
Population I star - A star which contains large amount of heavy elements Population II star - A star which contains medium amounts of heavy elements Population III star - A star which contains no heavy elements The amount of metals (anything above hydrogen, helium) gives us a classification for the star
Population III stars that have very little to no metals in them would be the first groups of stars created in our universe (nothing but hydrogen and helium) and should still be around Problem? We can’t find any population III stars in our universe
Dr. Danny Faulkner: “Since current cosmological theories demand that the universe began with a composition entirely of hydrogen and helium, it is believed that the very first generation of stars should have had no metals. Such a primordial generation has been dubbed population III, and a vigorous but unsuccessful search for these stars has been conducted.”
The Big Bang savior: Inflation The inflationary Big Bang model was first proposed by Alan Guth Inflation is the theorized extremely rapid expansion of the early universe, on the lines of a thousand billion billion billion fold.
Inflation is said to solve the monopole problem, the horizon problem, and more The Bible does mention an inflation type scenario with God stretching out the heavens, but we would equate that with the accelerated expansion of the universe, not inflation theory There are different theories on inflation that we don’t have time to discuss
The two main problems with inflation No one knows how to get it started There are ideas on how it might have occurred (the dividing of different fundamental forces in nature), but as of now there is no provable way to get inflation to happen when the universe comes into existence
The second problem is similar: No one knows how to stop it once it’s going Others question if the universe is allowed to inflate faster than the speed of light (which it would have, billions of times faster) What’s the shut off mechanism on this thing? And why once it shuts off does the universe continue expanding in an accelerated rate?
Memory Verse Deuteronomy 10:14: “Behold, to the L ORD your God belong heaven and the heaven of heavens, the earth with all that is in it.”