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Comparing the Japanese and Korean Languages: Culling Borrowed Words J. Marshall Unger Department of East Asian Languages & Literatures The Ohio State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparing the Japanese and Korean Languages: Culling Borrowed Words J. Marshall Unger Department of East Asian Languages & Literatures The Ohio State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparing the Japanese and Korean Languages: Culling Borrowed Words J. Marshall Unger Department of East Asian Languages & Literatures The Ohio State University

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3 proto-Sinitic Jōmon languages proto-Korean- Japanese ?proto-Mongolic ?Amuric ?proto-Tungusic ?proto-Turkic ?proto-Yangzian pre- Austronesian >2000-1500 BCE

4 Old Chinese Jōmon languages Austronesian pre-Austronesian remnant (?Dong-Yi) ca. 1500-300 BCE pre-Korean pre-Japanese Old Chinese Jōmon languages Austronesian pre-Austronesian remnant (?Dong-Yi) ca. 1500-900 BCE pre-Korean pre-Japanese

5 Early Han Chinese Jōmon languages Austronesian ca. 900-200 BCE proto-Korean proto-Japanese (para-Japanese)

6 Early Middle Chinese Austronesian ca. 200 BCE-400 CE proto-Korean proto-Japanese (para-Japanese) ?Hayato ?Kumaso ?Emishi ?pre-Ainu (trade contacts)

7 A.Synonyms of OJ words with para-‌Japanese cognates B.Synonyms of OJ words with Korean cognates C.Synonyms of OJ words of uncertain provenance Four Kinds of Korean Borrowings in Old Japanese

8 A.Synonyms of OJ words with para-‌Japanese cognates B.Synonyms of OJ words with Korean cognates C.Synonyms of OJ words of uncertain provenance D.Innovative loans Four Kinds of Korean Borrowings in Old Japanese

9 A. Synonyms of OJ words with para-‌Japanese cognates 1. K sey < MK ¨se(k) ~ ¨sey(h) ‘three’ < OK *sagi → OJ saki(kusa) id. > J saigusa 三枝 (ateji) ≠ OJ mi id. 2. MK ˙cas ‘fortress’ < OK *casi → OJ sasi id. ≠ OJ siro id., OJ kura ‘storehouse’ (Musasi 武蔵 (ateji) ~ kura 蔵 ) 3. MK ¨kwol ‘valley, deep hole’ < OK *kola → pre-‌OJ *kora > OJ kura ‘valley’ ≠ OJ tani ‘valley’ 4. MK ˙kyel ‘wave’ → OJ kiyoru ‘(epithet)’ ≠ OJ nami ‘wave’ 5. MK mel- ‘far, distant, remote’ → OJ mara- ~ moro- ‘far’, mare < *maraCi ‘rare’ ≠ OJ topo ‘far’ 6. K kiph- ‘deep’ < OK ?*kipha-‌, ?*kipa-‌k- → OJ kipa ‘brink’ ≠ OJ puka- ‘deep’ 7. MK palol ‘sea’ < OK *patol → OJ una-‌para ~ una-‌bara ‘surface of the ocean’ ≠ OJ wata ‘sea’

10 B. Synonyms of OJ words with Korean cognates 1. K kkun ‘cord’ < MK ˙kinh ~ skin < OK *ski- → OJ suki ‘baby-‌carrying sling’ ≠ wo ‘cord’ < pKJ *bə 2. MK syem < OK *syema ‘limited territory; island’ → OJ sema ≠ OJ sima id. < pKJ *syema 3. K kokwulye ‘Koguryŏ’ < OK *kwulye → OJ kure id. ≠ EMJ (kau)kuri id. < pJ *kure < pKJ *kwulye 4. MK kuluh ‘stump (tree counter)’ ?< OK kudye → EMJ kure ‘board, measured piece of wood’ ≠ OJ kwi ~ ko- ‘tree; wood’ < pJ *kəi < *kədi < pKJ *kədye

11 1. MK kye˙zulh ‘winter’ → OJ kisaragi ‘second lunar month’ ≠ OJ puyu ‘winter’ 2. MK ˙pal ‘leg, foot’< OK *palk → OJ pagi ‘shin’ ≠ J asi ‘leg, foot’ 3. MK ¨twolh ‘stone’ < *two˙kol → OJ toko(name) ‘stone slime’ ≠ OJ isi ‘stone’, ipa ‘rock, crag’ 4. K cina- ‘pass through, pass over’ → OJ sina- ‘slope’ ≠ OJ saka id. 5. MK ˙sal ‘arrow’ → OJ sa ~ sati ~ satu- ‘arrow, spear’ ≠ J ya ‘arrow’ 6. MK mosi ‘(plant)’ → OJ (kara)musi id. ≠ OJ wo ‘hemp’ 7. MK ilang ‘ridge between furrows’ < OK *ilang → OJ iraka ‘roof tile’ ≠ OJ une ‘ridge between furrows’ 8. MK ˙hoy ‘sun’ < OK *koy → J ka in hatuka ‘twentieth day’, ko in koyomi ‘calendar’ ≠ OJ pi ‘sun, day’ 9. MK ¨man˙ho- ‘many’ < OK *mane- → OJ ((s)a)mane-‌si ‘many; widespread’ ≠ OJ opo ‘big; many’ 10. MK polk ‘dawn, shine’ → EMJ (asa)borake ‘dawn’ ≠ ake- ‘get light’ 11. K kaci ‘branch’ OJ kusa id. in sakikusa ≠ OJ ye(da) id. > J eda C. Synonyms of other OJ words

12 D. Innovative loans 1. OJ potoke ‘Buddha’ ← *putoke antecedent of K puthye id. < *pwutV-‌hV 2. OJ kugutu ‘puppet’ ← the OK form of K kkoktwu id. ?< MCh *kakthuk 郭禿 ‘puppet’ (displaced later by kairai 傀 儡 ‘puppet’ and ningyoo 人形 ‘puppet, doll’) 3. EMJ sozoro ‘involuntarily’ ~ suzuro ← K susulo ‘on one’s own’ ~ susalo < MK suso-‌lwo

13 Table A Body PartsGoods 1 頭蠶[蚕]蠶[蚕] 2 二月 [ 二目 ] 稻種 3 二耳粟 4 鼻小豆 5 陰麥[麦]麥[麦] 6 尻大豆 Table B Body PartsGoods 1 頂牛・馬牛・馬 2 顱粟 3 眉蠒[蚕]蠒[蚕] 4 眼稗 5 腹稻 6 陰麥 [ 麦 ] ・大豆・ 小豆 Table C 五穀臍 2 蠶・桑蠶・桑頭 1 GoodsBody Parts

14 Table D 麦 pwoli 陰 pwoci 6 稻 pye 腹 pay 5 稗 ?nwui 眼 nwun 4 蚕 nwuey 眉 nwun.ssep 3 粟 cwo 顱 ?ca 2 馬 mol 頭・頂 meli, molo 1 GoodsBody Parts


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