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Chapter 9: Urban Geography Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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1 Chapter 9: Urban Geography Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Field Note: Ghosts of Detroit? “The semicircular shaped Grand Circus Park in Detroit, Michigan is divided by several streets, making it look like the hub and spokes of a bicycle wheel from above. The grouping of buildings along Grand Circus Park (Fig 9.1) reflects the rise, fall, and revitalization of the central business district (CBD) in Detroit. The central business district is a concentration of business and commerce in the city’s downtown…Abandoned high- rise buildings called the ghosts of Detroit are joined by empty single-family homes to account for 10,000 abandoned buildings in the city.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Key Question When and why did people start living in cities? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 urban: the built-up space of the central city and suburbs includes the city and surrounding environs connected to the city is distinctively nonrural and nonagricultural © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

5 A city is an agglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Concept caching: Kansas City, MO © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. © Barbara Weightman

6 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

7  Before urbanization, people often clustered in agricultural villages –  a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture (mostly subsistence).  about 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages

8 Two components enable the formation of cities: 1.an agricultural surplus (irrigation & large scale farming) 2. social stratification (a leadership class that controlled resources)

9 The innovation of the city is called the first urban revolution, and it occurred independently in six separate hearths, a case of independent invention. The six urban hearths are tied closely to agriculture. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Hearths of Urbanization When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

10 In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained.

11 The Six Hearths of Urbanization 1.Mesopotamia, 3500 B.C.E. 2.Nile River Valley, 3200 B.C.E. 3.Indus River Valley, 2200 B.C.E. 4.Huang He Valley, 1500 B.C.E. 5.Mesoamerica, 1100 B.C.E. 6.Peru, 900 B.C.E. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Hearths of Urbanization When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

12 served as economic nodes were the chief marketplaces were the anchors of culture and society, the focal points of power, authority, and change © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Role of the Ancient City in Society When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

13 populations in Mesopotamia grew with the steady food supply and a sedentary lifestyle people migrated out from the hearth, diffusing their knowledge of agriculture and urbanization Diffusion of Urbanization © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

14  social inequality reflected in varying sizes of homes  walled villages  palaces  priest-king class  levied taxes & collected tributes from harvest  temples and shrines at centers of towns  built on artificial mounds often over 100 ft high  mud walled homes for regular class  leadership class held slaves  no waste disposal or sanitation  disease was rampant, which kept the population small

15  link between urbanization and irrigation  power concentrated in the hands of people who controlled the irrigation systems  no walled cities = singular control  great pyramids, tombs, & sphinx were built by slaves

16 Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two of the first cities of the Indus River Valley. - intricately planned - houses equal in size - no palaces - no monuments -leadership class but no variation in houses -all homes had access to infrastructure, including drains & stone lined wells -thick walls -significant trade over long distances (coins)

17 The Chinese purposefully planned their cities. - centered on a vertical structure - inner wall built around center - temples and palaces for the leadership class placed inside the inner wall -rulers demonstrated their power by building elaborate structures, like the Great Wall of China Terracotta Warriors guarding the tomb of the Chinese Emperor Qin Xi Huang

18 Mayan and Aztec Civilizations many ancient cities were theocratic centers where rulers were deemed to have divine authority and were god-kings

19 Between 300 and 900 CE, Altun Ha, Belize served as a thriving trade and distribution center for the Caribbean merchant canoe traffic.

20 Greek Cities Greece is described as a secondary hearth of urbanization because the Greek city form and function diffused around the world centuries later through European colonialism. Urbanization diffused from Greece to the Roman Empire. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

21 The Greek Cities by 500 BCE, Greeks were highly urbanized.  network of more than 500 cities and towns ▪ connected to trade routes  diffusion of urbanization ▪ influenced Roman cities  on the mainland and on islands  poor sanitation, compact housing  each city had an acropolis and an agora ▪ acropolis- highpoint of a city where most impressive structures were built ▪ agora- public space (focus of commercial activity)

22 the acropolis the agora

23 When the Romans succeeded the Greeks (and Etruscans) as rulers of the region, their empire incorporated not only the Mediterranean shores but also a large part of interior Europe and North Africa. The site of a city is its absolute location, often chosen for its advantages in trade or defense, or as a center for religious practice. The situation of a city is based on its role in the larger, surrounding context: A city’s situation changes with times. Ex.: Rome becoming the center of the Roman Catholic Church. Roman Cities © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 The Roman Cities a system of cities and small towns, linked together with hundreds of miles of roads and sea routes. (transportation network)  sites of Roman cities were typically for trade ▪ also considered defensibility and religion  a Roman city’s Forum combined the acropolis and agora into one space. (focal point of public life)  Roman cities had extreme wealth and extreme poverty (between 1/3 and 2/3s of empire’s population was enslaved)  used Greek rectangular grid pattern  most cities had arenas

25 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 urban morphology: a city’s layout; its physical form and structure. Whenever possible, Romans adopted the way the Greeks planned their colonial cities; in a rectangular, grid pattern. functional zonation reveals how different areas or segments of a city serve different purposes or functions within the city. Ex.: the forum © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities? Roman Cities

27 Field Note “There can be few spaces of greater significance to the development of Western civilization than the Roman Forum. This was the nerve center of a vast empire that transformed the face of western Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. It was also the place where the decisions were made that carried forward Greek ideas about governance, art, urban design, and technology. The very organization of space found in the Roman Forum is still with us: rectilinear street patterns; distinct buildings for legislative, executive, and judicial functions; and public spaces adorned with statues and fountains.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Urban Growth After Greece and Rome During Europe’s Middle Ages, urbanization continued vigorously outside of Europe. In West Africa, trading cities developed along the southern margin of the Sahara. The Americas also experienced significant urban growth, especially within Mayan and Aztec empires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Site and Situation during European Exploration The relative importance of the interior trade routes changed when European maritime exploration and overseas colonization ushered in an era of oceanic, worldwide trade. The situation of cities like Paris and Xian changed from being crucial to an interior trading route to being left out of oceanic trade. After European exploration took off during the 1400s, the dominance of interior cities declined. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Coastal cities remained crucial after exploration led to colonialism. The trade networks European powers commanded (including the slave trade) brought unprecedented riches to Europe’s burgeoning medieval cities, such as Amsterdam (the Netherlands), London (England), Lisbon (Portugal), Liverpool (England), and Seville (Spain) As a result, cities that thrived during mercantilism took on similar properties. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Site and Situation during European Exploration

31 “The contemporary landscape of Genoa stands as a reminder of the city’s historic importance. Long before Europe became divided up into states, a number of cities in northern Italy freed themselves from the strictures of feudalism and began to function autonomously. Genoa and Venice were two of these, and they became the foci of significant Mediterranean maritime trading empires. In the process, they also became magnificent, wealthy cities. Although most buildings in Genoa’s urban core date from a more recent era, the layout of streets and public squares harkens back to the city’s imperial days. Is it a surprise that the city gave birth to one of the most famous explorers of all time: Christopher Columbus?” Field Note © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 During the late 17th century and into the 18th century, Europeans invented a series of important improvements in agriculture. The second agricultural revolution also improved organization of production, market collaboration, and storage capacities. Many industrial cities grew from small villages or along canal and river routes. A Second Agricultural Revolution When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

33 Around 1800, Western Europe was still overwhelmingly rural. As thousands migrated to the cities with industrialization, cities had to adapt to the mushrooming population, the proliferation of factories and supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the construction of tenements for the growing labor force. A Second Urban Revolution © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

34 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When industrialization diffused from Great Britain to the European mainland, the places most ready for industrialization had undergone their own second agricultural revolution, had surplus capital from mercantilism and colonialism, and were located near coal fields. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

35 The Chaotic Industrial City With industrialization, cities became unregulated jumbles of activity. Living conditions were dreadful for workers in cities, and working conditions were shocking. The soot-covered cities of the British Midlands were deemed the “black towns.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities?

36 In mid-1800s, as Karl Marx and Frederick Engels encouraged “workers of the world” to unite, conditions in European manufacturing cities gradually improved. During the second half of the twentieth century, the nature of manufacturing changed, as did its location. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The Chaotic Industrial City

37 EVOLUTION OF US URBAN SYSTEM Five Epochs of Metropolitan Evolution – John Borchert 1. The Sail-Wagon Epoch ( ): primitive overland and waterway circulation - leading cities northeastern ports heavily oriented to European overseas trade - Hinterlands barely accessible. 2. The Iron Horse Epoch ( ): dominated by steam-powered railroad, provided nation-wide transportation system, New York primate city by The Steel-Rail Epoch ( ): full establishment of national metropolitan system, increasing scale of manufacturing, rise of steel and automobile industries, steel rails

38 4. The Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch ( ): maturation of national urban hierarchy, key elements were airplane and automobile, expansion of white-collar services jobs, growing pull of amenities (pleasant environments) stimulating urbanization of the suburbs 5. The Satellite-Electronics-Jet Propulsion Epoch (1970- ): newest advances in information management, computer technologies, global communications, and intercontinental travel; favors globally-oriented metropolises. Five Epochs of Metropolitan Evolution – (cont.)

39 The Modern Process of Urbanization – a rural area can become urbanized quite quickly in the modern world Shenzhen, China

40 Shenzhen changed from a fishing village to a major metropolitan area in just 25 years. 25 years ago, all of this land was duck ponds and rice paddies. Shenzhen, China

41 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Archaeologists have found that the houses in Indus River cities, such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, were a uniform size: each house had access to a sewer system, and palaces were absent from the cultural landscape. Derive a theory as to why these conditions were present in these cities that had both a leadership class and a surplus of agricultural goods.

42 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Question Where are cities located, and why?

43 Concept Caching: Mount Vesuvius Where Are Cities Located, and Why? Urban geographers discovered that every city and town has a trade area, an adjacent region within which its influence is dominant. Three key components arise frequently in urban geography: population, trade area, and distance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 The rank-size rule holds that in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. – If the largest city has 12 M people, the second largest will have 6 M (or ½); the third city will have 4 million (1/3 of 12) German Felix Auerbach, linguist George Zipf. Random growth (chance) and economies of scale (efficiency) explain why the rank-size rule works where it does. The rank-size rule does not apply in all countries, especially countries with one dominant city. Mark Jefferson: A primate city is “a country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling.” Rank and Size in the Urban Matrix

45 Positive effects of a primate city within a country Lots of economic opportunities Large market (pop.) for goods and services Ability to offer high-end goods and services (including education) because of larger threshold population Advantages of centralized transportation and communication network Global trade opportunities; primate cities can compete on a global scale and attract foreign investment © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 Negative effects of primate city on a country Unequal distribution of investments deters national economic development Unequal economic and/or resource development Unequal distribution of wealth and/or power Transportation network (hub and spoke) prevents equal accessibility to all regions Impact of centrifugal forces and difficulties of political cohesion on economic development Brain drain – migration and unequal distribution of education, entrepreneurship, opportunities Disproportionate effect of disaster in the primate city on the entire country Negative externalities, e.g., unsustainable urban growth/slums/environmental impacts if these are related to economic development, e.g., burden on national economy to cope with problems © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

47 Central place theory: Walter Christaller, The Central Places in Southern Germany (1933), had five assumptions: 1.The surface of the ideal region would be flat and have no physical barriers. 2.Soil fertility would be the same everywhere 3.Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed. 4.The region would have a uniform transportation network to permit direct travel from each settlement to the other. 5.From any given place, a good or service could be sold in all directions out to a certain distance. Central Place Theory © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

48 Central Place Theory Each central place has a surrounding complementary region, an exclusive trade area within which the town has a monopoly on the sale of certain goods. Hexagonal Hinterlands Christaller chose perfectly fitted hexagonal regions as the shape of each trade area. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 Central Place Theory Activity Central Place Hexagons Threshold, Range, Multiplier Effects

50 Christaller looked at the arrangement of urban place and functions. He started trying to model what he saw. Ok, pour out your crackers onto your paper towel and start hypothesizing as Christaller did.

51 Arrangement and Spacing of Urban Places circular shapes resulted in unserved or overlapped areas hexagons had no gaps or overlaps this suggests an inverse relationship of higher order and lower order settlements (towns and cities) theoretically, settlements will be equidistant from each other in other words, big towns/cities are farther apart from each other Why?

52 Definitions we need to know hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis, megalopolis population threshold - # of people market threshold – amount of $ in the place/area range or range of sale functional hierarchies low order goods high order goods complementary region- exclusive hinterland within which the town has a monopoly on the sale of a certain good(s) rank-size rule basic sector non-basic sector multiplier effect

53 Assumptions of Central Place Theory isotropic plane – no variation (e.g., flat with no barriers to impede movement even population distribution rational behavior by consumers – assume that people will minimize the distance they travel to obtain a good or service that is, Consumers visit the nearest central places that provide the function which they demand perfect competition and all sellers are trying to maximize their profits consumers have similar purchasing power and demand for goods and services transportation costs are equal in all directions no provider of goods or services is able to earn excess profit(each supplier has a monopoly over a hinterland) central places vary in size - small village to a conurbation is part of a link in an urban hierarchy

54 Application of Threshold and Range using Christaller’s Model low order goods have a low range and low threshold – fewer people needed to support it and thus shorter distances traveled to obtain it Where are low order goods/services? higher ranges and higher threshold goods are sold in larger towns/cities – people will travel longer distances to obtain these goods/services Examples? How about a ski resort in DFW? Is there the threshold (market or population) for it?

55 Limitations to CPT large areas of flat land are not common many forms of transport – costs of each are not necessarily proportional people and wealth not evenly distributed purchasing power of people differs perfect competition is not realistic – there are rich and poor

56 Christaller’s Model Review: 1.Urban places are ranked in an orderly hierarchy. One is moved? Everything will shift to balance 2.Real world has no absolutes, but Locational Theory does seem to work 3.Places of same size with same number of functions would be spaced same distance apart 4.Large cities are spaced farther apart from each other than towns or villages

57 So, let’s diagram with the model

58 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) tates_Metropolitan_Statistical_Areas

59 “Many trade areas in the United States are named, and their names typically coincide with the vernacular region, the region people perceive themselves as living in. In promoting a trade area, companies often adopt, name, or shape the name of the vernacular region. In Oklahoma, the label Green Country refers to the northeastern quarter of the state, the trade area served by Tulsa.” Credit: Brad Bays, Oklahoma State University Guest Field Note: Broken Arrow, Oklahoma © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

60 Central Places Today New factors, forces, and conditions not anticipated by Christaller’s models and theories make them less relevant today. Ex.: The Sun Belt phenomenon : the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the south and southwest. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Are Cities Located, and Why?

61 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

62 primate cities – a country’s largest city that is always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling; next largest city is much smaller and much less influential rank-size rule – in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. If the largest city © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

63 Key Question How are cities organized, and how do they function? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

64 Models of the City functional zonation: the division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions) Globalization has created common cultural landscapes in the financial districts of many world cities. Regional models of cities help us understand the processes that forged cities in the first place and understand the impact of modern linkages and influences now changing cities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Are Cities Organized, and How Do They Function?

65 Functional Zones A zone is typically preceded by a descriptor that conveys the purpose of that area of the city. Most models define the key economic zone of the city as the central business district (CBD). The central city describes the urban area that is not suburban. In effect, central city refers to the older city as opposed to the newer suburbs. A suburb is an outlying, functionally uniform part of an urban area, and is often (but not always) adjacent to the central city. suburbanization is the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized, as people and businesses from the city move to these spaces. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

66 P.O. Muller: Contemporary Suburban America (1981): Found suburban cities ready to compete with the central city for leading urban economic activities. In addition to expanding residential zones, the process of suburbanization rapidly creates distinct urban regions complete with industrial, commercial, and educational components. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functional Zones

67 Six processes at work in the city concentration — differential distribution of population and economic activities in a city, and the manner in which they have focused on the center of the city decentralization — the location of activity away from the central city segregation — the sorting out of population groups according to conscious preferences for associating with one group or another through bias and prejudice

68 Six processes at work in the city specialization — similar to segregation only refers to the economic sector invasion — traditionally, a process through which a new activity or social group enters an area succession — a new use or social group gradually replaces the former occupants The following models were constructed to examine single cities and do not necessarily apply to metropolitan coalescences so common in today’s world.

69 Modeling the North American City Concentric zone model: resulted from sociologist Ernest Burgess’s study of Chicago in the 1920s. Burgess’s model divides the city into five concentric zones, defined by their function: 1.CBD is itself subdivided into several subdistricts. 2.Zone of transition is characterized by residential deterioration and encroachment by business and light manufacturing. 3.Zone 3 is a ring of closely spaced but adequate homes occupied by the blue-collar labor force. 4.Zone 4 consists of middle-class residences. 5.Zone 5 is the suburban ring. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

70 Concentric zone model Developed in 1925 by Ernest W. Burgess A model with five zones.

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72 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. – Zone 1 the central business district (CBD) distinct pattern of income levels out to the commuters’ zone extension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern

73 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. – Zone 2 characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use rooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segment often includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began here usually called the transition zone

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75 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. – Zone 3 the “workingmen’s quarters” solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2 more stable than the transition zone around the CBD often characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettos spreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing

76 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. – Zone 4 middle class area of “better housing” established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar network commute to work in the CBD

77 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. – Zone 5 consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbs located either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad lines spacious lots and large houses from here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4

78 Concentric zone model Theory represented the American city in a new stage of development – before the 1870s, cities such as New York had mixed neighborhoods where merchants’ stores and sweatshop factories were intermingled with mansions and hovels – rich and poor, immigrant and native-born, rubbed shoulders in the same neighborhoods

79 Concentric zone model In Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great fire of 1871 leveled the core – the result of rebuilding was a more explicit social patterning – Chicago became a segregated city with a concentric pattern – this was the city Burgess used for his model – the actual map of the residential area does not exactly match his simplified concentric zones

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81 Concentric zone model critics of the model – pointed out that even though portions of each zone did exist, rarely were they linked to totally surround the city – Burgess countered there were distinct barriers, such as old industrial centers, preventing the completion of the arc – others felt Burgess, as a sociologist, overemphasized residential patterns and did not give proper credit to other land uses

82 Homer Hoyt: Sector model The city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city’s outer edge, creating zones that are shaped like a piece of pie. The pie-shaped pieces describe the high- rent residential, intermediate rent residential, low-rent residential, education and recreation, transportation, and industrial sectors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the North American City

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84 Sector model Homer Hoyt, an economist, presented his sector model in maintained high-rent districts were instrumental in shaping land-use structure of the city because these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges

85 Sector model Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors – moves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high- rent buildings – will progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industry – will move along the route of fastest transportation – will move toward open space

86 Sector model as high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in – middle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestige – low-rent areas fill remaining areas – moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low there are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model he had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile

87 Sector model Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways. – surrounding areas are often low-rent districts – contrary to Hoyt’s theory – freeways were imposed on existing urban pattern – often built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less

88 Multiple nuclei model suggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945 maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various points the CBD was not the sole generator of change

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90 Multiple nuclei model equal weight must be given to: – an old community on city outskirts around which new suburbs clustered – an industrial district that grew from an original waterfront location – low-income area that began because of some social stigma attached to site

91 Multiple nuclei model more than any other model takes into account the varied factors of decentralization in the structure of the North American city many criticize the concentric zone and sector theories as being rather deterministic because they emphasize one single factor multiple nuclei theory encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social possibilities most urban scholars feel Harris and Ullman succeeded in trying to integrate the disparate element of culture into workable model

92 Multiple nuclei model rooted their model in four geographic principles – certain activities require highly specialized facilities accessible transportation for a factory large areas of open land for a housing tract – certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association – certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area – certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations

93 Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman: multiple nuclei model This model recognizes that the CBD was losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area. Edge cities : Suburban downtowns developed mainly around big regional shopping centers; they attracted industrial parks, office complexes, hotels, restaurants, enter- tainment facilities, and sports stadiums. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Modeling the North American City

94 Figure 9.23 Tysons Corner, Virginia. In the suburbs of Washington, D.C., on Interstate 495 (the Beltway), Tysons Corner has developed as a major edge city, with offices, retail, and commercial services. © Rob Crandall/The Image Works. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

95 Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Primate cities in developing countries are called megacities when the city has a large population, a vast territorial extent, rapid in-migration, and a strained, inadequate infrastructure. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Concept Caching: Mumbai, India © Harm de Blij

96 Griffin-Ford model South American cities blend traditional elements of South American culture with globalization forces that are reshaping the urban scene, combining radial sectors and concentric zones. The thriving CBD anchors the model. Shantytowns are unplanned groups of crude dwellings and shelters made of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard that develop around cities. The South American City © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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98 Latin American model more complex because of influence of local cultures on urban development difficult to group cities of the developing world into one or two comprehensive models Latin American model is shown in next slide

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100 Latin American model generalized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and articulates pervasive influence of international forces, both Western and non-Western in contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specialized – a reliance on public transit that serves the central city – existence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD

101 Latin American model outside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded by the elite residential sector – these two zones are interrelated and called the spine/sector – essentially an extension of the CBD down a major boulevard – here are the city’s important amenities — parks, theaters, restaurants, and even golf courses – strict zoning and land controls ensure continuation of these activities, protecting elite from incursions by low-income squatters

102 Latin American model inner-city zone of maturity – less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homes – homes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sector – area of upward mobility

103 Latin American model zone of accretion – diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and quality – transition between zone of maturity and next zone – area of ongoing construction and change – some neighborhoods have city-provided utilities – other blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services

104 Latin American model zone of peripheral squatter settlements – where most recent migrants are found – fringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American cities – houses often built from scavenged materials – gives the appearance of a refugee camp – surrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materials – streets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated” – residents who work have a long commute – many are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods

105 Field Note “February 1, A long-held hope came true today: thanks to a Brazilian intermediary I was allowed to enter and spend a day in two of Rio de Janeiro’s hillslope favelas, an eight-hour walk through one into the other. Here live millions of the city’s poor, in areas often ruled by drug lords and their gangs, with minimal or no public services, amid squalor and stench, in discomfort and danger. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

106 The African City The imprint of European colonialism can still be seen in many African cities. During colonialism, Europeans laid out prominent urban centers. The centers of South Africa’s major cities (Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban) remain essentially western. Studies of African cities indicate that the central city often consists of not one but three CBDs: a remnant of the colonial CBD, an informal and sometimes periodic market zone, and a transitional business center where commerce is conducted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

107 The Southeast Asian City Figure 9.27 Model of the Large Southeast Asian City. A model of land use in the medium-sized Southeast Asian city includes sectors and zones within each sector. Adapted with permission from: T. G. McGee, The Southeast Asian City, London: Bell, 1967, p © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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109 Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.

110 Feminist critiques models assume only one person is a wage worker — the male head ignore dual-income families and households headed by single women women contend with a larger array of factors in making locational decisions – distances to child care and school facilities – other important services important for different members of a family traditional models that assume a spatial separation of workplace and home are no longer appropriate

111 Feminist critiques results of a study of activity patterns of working parents – women living in a city have access to wider array of employment opportunities – better able to combine domestic and wage labor than women in suburbs – many middle class women choose a gentrified inner-city location to live hope this area will offer amenities of suburbs—good schools and safety accommodate their activity patterns – other research has shown some businesses locate offices in suburbs because they rely on labor of highly educated, middle class women spatially constrained by domestic work

112 Feminist critiques most criticisms of above models focus or their inability to account for all the complexities of urban forms all three models assume urban patterns are shaped by economic trade-offs between: – desire to live in suburban neighborhood appropriate to one’s economic status – need to live close to the city center for employment opportunities

113 Feminist critiques most women seek employment closer to home than men even those without small children criticism of models by women – most families require two real wage earners – models tend to reflect an urban structure that isolates women who do not participate in the urban labor market – raises problems of timing and organization for those who combine waged and domestic labor – created by men who shared certain assumptions about how cities operate, and represent a partial view of urban life

114 Feminist critiques other theories incorporated alternative perspective of female scholars – studies using mostly female students, focused on “race,” ethnicity, class, and housing in Chicago – emphasized role of landlords in shaping discrimination in the housing market study by urban historian Raymond Mohl – follows the making of black ghettos in Miami between 1940 and 1960 – reveals role of public policy decisions, landlordism, and discrimination

115 apartheid and post-apartheid city apartheid —state-sanctioned policies of segregating “races” intended effects of these policies on urban form are delineated in next slide

116

117 apartheid and post-apartheid city important components of the apartheid state – policies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948 – government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950 first was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and colored second called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group

118 apartheid and post-apartheid city important components of the apartheid state – government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950 effects of the two acts – downtowns were restricted to whites – areas for non-whites were peripheral, restricted, and often without urban services—transportation or shopping – large numbers of non-whites were displaced with little or no compensation – buffer zones were created between residential to curtail contact

119 apartheid and post-apartheid city model apartheid city most closely resembles the sector model cities were artificially divided into discrete areas non-white populations suffered the consequences notorious example — Sophiatown in Johannesburg remains to be seen what form the post-apartheid city will take

120 Soviet and post-Soviet city cities were shaped by the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 – socialist principles called for the nationalization of all resources – economics would no longer dictate land-use— allocation planners would new ideals had profound effect on urban form of Soviet cities

121 The Soviet and post-Soviet city Soviet policies attempted to create a more equitable arrangement of land uses – relative absence of residential segregation according to socioeconomic status – equitable housing facilities for most citizens – relatively equal accessibility to sites for distribution of consumer items – cultural amenities located and priced to be accessible to as many people as possible – adequate and accessible public transportation

122 The Soviet and post-Soviet city The situation outlined above was less than ideal. – By the 1970s and 1980s many Soviets realized their standards of living were well below those in the west. – A centralized planning system was not successful. In the late 1980s economic restructuring introduced perestroyka. The post-Soviet city – market forces are again the dominant force in shaping urban land uses – pace and scale of urban change are unprecedented

123

124 The Soviet and post-Soviet city privatization of the housing market —example of Moscow – private housing grew from 9.3 percent in 1990 to 49.6 percent in 1994 – does not mean better housing for all people – many people cannot afford the high prices – apartments are particularly expensive in the center of Moscow – most people have no choice but to live in communal apartments from the old Soviet system

125 The Soviet and post-Soviet city cities are taking on the look of western cities – downtowns now have most expensive land – increasingly dominated by retailing outlets of familiar Western companies – tall office buildings housing financial activities are replacing industrial buildings – processes akin to gentrification are taking place in city centers displacing residents to peripheral portions of the cities The outcome of the new changes is not certain and will be continued to be studied.

126 Culture Regions urban culture regions cultural diffusion in the city the cultural ecology of the city cultural integration and models of the city urban landscapes

127 Themes in cityscape study landscape dynamics – because North Americans are a restless people, settlements are cauldrons of change downtown activities creeping into residential areas deteriorated farmland on city outskirts older buildings demolished for new – when visual clues are mapped and analyzed, they offer evidence for current of change

128

129 Themes in cityscape study Equally interesting is to note where change in not occurring. – an unchanging landscape conveys an important message part of the city is stagnant because it is removed from those forces effecting change in other parts conscious attempt by local residents to inhibit change preserve open space by resisting suburban development preserving a historical landmark

130 Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia

131 Cities grow through intensification of already urbanized areas and by extensification into rural areas. This new development is on agricultural land near Washington, DC. Many farmers on urban peripheries, lured by rising land prices, ultimately sell to developers.

132 Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia As a mixture of open land and urban structures, this is a good example of leapfrog, or checkerboard development. Moreover, the houses are being sold as “Gentlemen Farms,” a landscape of the elite.

133 Themes in cityscape study The city as palimpsest – Because city landscapes change, they offer a field for uncovering remnants of the past – palimpsest an old parchment used over and over for written messages before a new message could be written, the old was erased, but rarely were all previous characters and words completely obliterated the mosaic of old and new is called a palimpsest — used by geographers to describe visual mixture of old and new in cultural landscapes

134 City as palimpsest: Singapore

135 Like many cities, Singapore’s landscape is one of historic artifacts amidst the contemporary fabric. This is the core of old Singapore, as developed by the British after Strategically situated on the Straits of Melaka, the city functioned as an important entreport in Southeast Asia attracting a population of Chinese, Indians, Malays, and Europeans.

136 City as Palimpsest: Singapore Trade offices, shophouses, and godowns (warehouses) lined the Singapore river and commercial activity choked the area. After Singapore became independent in , the combination of rapid population growth and aging infrastructure called for a renewal plan. Old housing stock and godowns were razed to be replaced by modern public housing, malls and office buildings.

137 City as Palimpsest: Singapore In the 1980s, people realized that they were destroying the character of the city and efforts were made to preserve and restore some of old Singapore. Waterfront shophouses have been “boutiqued” into clubs and restaurants. Here, remnants of the past stand in the shadow of the symbols fo the future: The Bank of the People’s Republic of China (left) and the Telecom building.

138 Themes in cityscape study symbolic cityscapes – landscapes contain more than literal messages about economic functions loaded with figurative or metaphorical meaning subjectivized emotion, memories, and content essential to the social fabric – to some, skyscrapers are more than high-rise buildings – historic landscapes help people define themselves in time establish social continuity with the past codify a forgotten, yet sometimes idealized, past

139 Themes in cityscape study D.W. Minig maintains there are three highly symbolized townscapes in the United States – the New England village – Main Street of Middle America – California Suburbia each is based upon an actual landscape of a particular region each has influenced the shaping of the American scene over broader areas

140

141 Themes in cityscape study Cultural landscape is important vehicle for constructing and maintaining social and ethnic distinctions. – conspicuous consumption is a major means for conveying social identity – elite landscapes are created through large-lot zoning, imitation country estates, and detailed ornamental iconography cultural geographers are interested in how townscapes and landmarks take on symbolic significance – question whether idealizations are based on some sort of reality or fabricated from diverse predilections – interested in how to assess the impact of symbolic landscapes – messages inherent in loaded landscapes determine how we treat our environment-bow it is managed, changed, or protected

142 Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy

143 Pigeons, starlings, and sparrows thrive in urban environments. Feral pigeons, descended from rock doves, favoring cliff- face roosts, like to nest in similar building niches. Accumulated droppings raise serious problems. They corrode stonework, particularly limestone, and many historic buildings and statues have been irreparably damaged.

144 Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy Fouled pavements are slippery and hazardous to pedestrians. Pigeon excreta, feathers and detritus can block gutters and drains providing a potential health hazard. In many cities today, people are discouraged from feeding pigeons and renovated buildings are fitted with spiked rails to discourage roosting.

145 Themes in cityscape study perception of the city – Social scientists assume if we know what people see and react to in the city we can design and create a more humane urban environment. – Kevin Lynch, an urban designer, assumed all residents have a mental map of the city. figured out ways people could convey their mental map to others What do people react favorably or negatively to? What do they block out?

146 Themes in cityscape study perception of the city – On the basis of interviews, Lynch suggested five important elements in mental maps of cities: pathways — threads that hold our maps together edges — tend to define the extremes of our urban vision nodes — any place where important pathways come together districts — small areas with a common identity landmarks — reference points that stand out because of shape, height, color, or historic importance.

147 Themes in cityscape study Lynch saw some parts of the cities were more legible than others. – legibility comes when urban landscape offers clear pathways, nodes, district, edges, and landmarks – less legible parts of the city do not offer such precise landscape Lynch found some cities more legible than others. – Jersey City is a city of low legibility wedged between New York City and Newark fragmented by railroads and highways – residents’ mental maps of Jersey City have large blank areas

148 Themes in cityscape study distinct ethnic, gender, and age variables to mental maps of cities – often influence everyday behavior – women feel more vulnerable to crime, especially rape – women will tend to avoid certain areas of a city at night

149 The new urban landscape shopping malls – most are not designed to be seen from the outside – retail districts of the 18O0s~and early 1900s cities had grand architectural displays along the major boulevards – malls are often located near an off ramp of a major freeway – close to middle and upper-class residential neighborhoods

150 The new urban landscape shopping malls – characteristic form of malls of the 1960s simple, linear form, with department stores at each end functioning as anchors usually had 20 to 30 smaller shops connecting the two ends – in the 1970s and 1980s, larger malls had a more complex form example: Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota malls today are often several stories tall and may have 5 or 6 anchor stores, and up to 400 smaller shops

151

152 The new urban landscape office parks – office buildings no longer need to be located in the center city development of communication technologies major interstates connect metropolitan areas cheaper rent in suburban locations convenience of easy-access parking and privacy of a separate location – being constructed throughout suburban America

153 The new urban landscape office parks – next slide shows location of office parks in metropolitan Atlanta – many are occupied by regional and national headquarters of large corporations or local sales and professional offices – many offices will locate together and rent or buy space from a land development company to take advantage of economies of scale

154

155 The new urban landscape office parks – the use of the term park points to conscious anti- urban imagery tend to be horizontal in shape — three to six stories tall many are surrounded by a well-landscaped outdoor space human-made lakes and waterfalls, jogging paths, fitness trails, and picnic tables

156

157 The new urban landscape office parks – do remove workers from social diversity of an urban location – many office parks are located along what have been called high-tech corridors — areas along limited-access highways – this new type of commercial landscape is gradually replacing downtowns as the workplace for most Americans

158 The new urban landscape master-planned communities – many newer residential developments on suburban fringes are planned and built as complete neighborhoods by private development companies include architecturally compatible housing have a variety of recreational facilities exploit various land-use restrictions and zoning regulations to maintain control over land values

159 The new urban landscape master-planned communities – example of Weston in south Florida covers approximately ten thousand acres land use is completely regulated within gated area and also along the road system connecting Weston to the interstate shrubbery is planted to shield residents from roadway view signs are uniform in style

160

161 The new urban landscape festival settings – often gentrification efforts focus on a multiuse redevelopment scheme built around a particular setting, often one with historical association – waterfronts are commonly chosen as focal points – complexes integrate retailing, office, and entertainment activities – Knox suggests these developments are “distinctive as new landscape elements merely because of their scale and their consequent ability to stage — or merely to be — the spectacular”

162 Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong

163 Festival settings, both outdoors and indoors, are used to attract customers. There is typically one or more themes with flamboyant flags, signs, music and entertainment. Retail establishments include trendy shops, restaurants, and entertainment facilities.

164 Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong This is one of the several ultra-modern, enclosed malls in Hong Kong. The theme here is the Dragon Boat Festival, held annually in the lunar calendar’s fifth month. This view is from an open, tiered restaurant.

165 The new urban landscape festival settings – Some festival settings serve as sites for concerts, ethnic festivals, and street performances. also focal points for more informal human interactions usually associated with urban life in this sense do perform a vital function in the attempt to revitalize downtowns – massive displays of wealth and consumption often stand in contrast to neighboring areas that have received little benefit from these projects

166

167 The new urban landscape “militarized” space – meaning the increasing use of space to set up defenses against elements of the city considered undesirable – includes landscaping development that range from: lack of street furniture to stop homeless living on the streets gated and guarded residential communities complete segregation of classes and races’ within the city – As Davis says, “cities of all sizes are rushing to apply and profit from a formula that links together clustered development, social homogeneity, and a perception of security.” – Has taken on epic proportions as many big American cities become “militarized” spaces.

168

169 The new urban landscape decline of public space – related to the increase in “militarized” space – change in shopping patterns from downtown to shopping malls – many city governments have joined with developers to built enclosed walkways above or below city streets provides climate-controlled conditions provides pedestrians with a “safe” environment to avoid possible confrontations on the street – some scholars suggest the Internet is a new forum for social and political interaction

170 A New Landmark: London, England

171 This is the high-tech, engineering style (1986) of Lloyd’s of London Insurance building. Designed by Richard Rogers, co- designer of the Pompidou Center in Paris, it stands as a challenge to those in love with the past.

172 A New Landmark: London, England It stimulates controversy and has become a landmark enhancing the legibility of the city. Not only is it made of reflective materials and the glass atrium suspended on central pillars, but much of what is traditionally inside, such as stairways, elevators and lavatories, is now on the outside. It is a building with its guts exposed. The black structure is Barclay’s Bank.

173 Urbanization

174  A country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and expressive of nationalistic feelings  Usually center of politics, economics, culture  Rank size rule does not apply to countries with a primate city

175  A crescent shaped zone of early urbanization extending across Eurasia from England to Japan

176  Colonialism increased the importance of coastal cities  interior cities became less important  Mercantile city brought about the “downtown” as we know it today  Nodes of a global network of commerce  Middle class  Became engulfed by desperate immigrants looking for opportunity  Emergence of a manufacturing city  Unregulated jumbles of activity  Poor sanitation  DISEASE  Elegant homes converted to tenement housing as wealthy & middle class moved out of downtown areas to escape immigrants

177  New World cities did not suffer as much as European cities.  Sub-Saharan Africa  least urbanized realm but fastest growing realm  2 nd half of twentieth century  manufacturing cities experience decline  Shift to tertiary services  Transportation advancement has led to the creation of the modern city  suburbs  More dispersed

178  Rural to urban land use  impact?  PO Muller  self sufficient entity containing its own major economic and cultural activities  2000 census  50% of Americans live in the suburbs  Essence of the modern American city

179  City where focus has shifted from CBD to urban fringe  Shopping malls  High tech light manufacturing  White collar firms  Entertainment & hotel complexes  Airports  Located along intersections of major freeways

180  Urban area is less dispersed  Urban amenities have not relocated to the suburbs  Do not display sharp contrasts of wealth as seen in American cities  Multiple family dwellings more common

181  Many built before modern transportation so streets are narrow and layout is more compact  More walking and use of metro than cars  Primate cities  Legacy of past is better preserved  Wars have taken their toll  Outlying towns have attracted high tech industries (outside of greenbelts)  GREENBELTS  areas around European cities that are left to natural state or are preserved gardens, parks, etc.  Limits urban sprawl  Contains suburbanization

182  Estimate  by the middle of this century, approximately 75% of ppl will live in urban settings  Hazards of site  No infrastructure  Land not intended for heavy urban use  Loss of land  NA loses about 1 million acres of farmland every year  China  3 million acres  Changed land cover  Paving  less rainfall permeates ground, washes pollutants into water sources  Pollution  Production of waste (lack of sewer facilities)  developing world  Demand for water  Urbanization increases water usage by five times per person  Changing consumption habits  More energy, meat (extends pastures & threatens forests)

183

184  Immigrants cluster together in an enclave within a city  All needs met  Invasion and succession  neighborhoods remain the same but new groups come in and out

185  Redlining  Blockbusting  Racial steering  used after blockbusting became illegal  Realtors encouraged blacks and whites to look for housing in areas that would promote changing ghetto boundaries  real estate turnover

186  Modernism v. Postmodernism  Gentrification & commercialization  DINKS & SINKS  Displacement of poor residents who cannot afford higher real estate  Inner cities  Less tax base  No funding  Govt housing  deglomeration

187 The Cloverleaf vs The Access Road and the AM-PM side of the Market Two Differing Ideas on Urban and Economic Development

188 The Cloverleaf

189 The Access Road

190 What are the differences in development possibilities? Safety? Aesthetics?

191 AM vs PM

192 How do people share cities? Key Question 9.4 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

193 Zoning laws: Cities define areas of the city and designate the kinds of development allowed in each zone. Figure 9.28 Lomé, Togo. The city’s landscape reflects a clear dichotomy between the “haves” and “have-nots.” © Alexander B. Murphy. Figure 9.29 Tokyo, Japan. The city’s landscape reflects the presence of a large middle class in a densely populated city. © iStockphoto. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

194 Field Note “Central Cairo is full of the multistory buildings, transportation arteries, and commercial signs that characterize most contemporary big cities. Outside of a number of mosques, few remnants of the old medieval city remain. The first blow came in the nineteenth century, when a French educated ruler was determined to recast Cairo as a world-class city. Inspired by the planning ideas of Paris’s Baron von Hausman, he transformed the urban core into a zone of broad, straight streets. In more recent years the forces of modern international capitalism have had the upper hand. There is little sense of an overall vision for central Cairo. Instead, it seems to be a hodge-podge of buildings and streets devoted to commerce, administration, and a variety of producer and consumer services.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

195 Field Note “Moving out from central Cairo, evidence of the city’s rapid growth is all around you. These hastily built housing units are part of the (often losing) effort to keep up with the city’s exploding growth. From a city of just one million people in 1930, Cairo’s population expanded to six million by And then high growth rates really kicked in. Although no one knows the exact size of the contemporary city, most estimates suggest that Cairo’s population has doubled in the last 20 years. This growth has placed a tremendous strain on city services. Housing has been a particularly critical problem—leading to a landscape outside the urban core dominated by hastily built, minimally functional, and aesthetically non-descript housing projects.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

196 Shaping Cities in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Particularly in the economic periphery, new arrivals (and long-term residents) crowd together in overpopulated apartments, dismal tenements, and teeming slums. Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforceable zoning laws. Across the global periphery, the one trait all major cities display is the stark contrast between the wealthy and poor. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

197 Shaping Cities in the Global Core During the segregation era in the United States, Realtors, financial lenders, and city governments defined and segregated spaces in urban environments. Ex.: redlining, blockbusting White flight —movement of whites from the city and adjacent neighborhoods to the outlying suburbs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

198 In order to counter the suburbanization trend, city governments are encouraging commercialization of the central business district and gentrification of neighborhoods in and around the central business district. Commercialization entails transforming the central business district into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike. Gentrification is the rehabilitation of houses in older neighborhoods. Teardowns: suburban homes meant for demolition; the intention is to replace them with McMansions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

199 Field Note “In 2008, downtown Fort Worth, Texas looked quite different than it did when I first visited in In that eleven year period, business leaders in the City of Fort Worth gentrified the downtown. The Bass family, who has a great deal of wealth from oil holdings and who now owns about 40 blocks of downtown Fort Worth, was instrumental in the city’s gentrification. In the 1970s and 1980s, members of the Bass family looked at the empty, stark, downtown Fort Worth, and sought a way to revitalize the downtown. They worked with the Tandy family to build and revitalize the spaces of the city, which took off in the late 1990s and into the present century. The crown jewel in the gentrified Fort Worth is the beautiful cultural center called the Bass Performance Hall, named for Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass, which opened in 1998.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

200 Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism Urban sprawl: unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

201

202 To counter urban sprawl, a group of architects, urban planners, and developer outlined an urban design vision they call new urbanism: development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs Geographer David Harvey argues the new urbanism movement is a kind of “spatial determinism” that does not recognize that “the fundamental difficulty with modernism was its persistent habit of privileging spatial forms over social processes.” Other critics say “communities” that new urbanists form through their projects are exclusionary and deepen the racial segregation of cities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism

203 Field Note “When I visited Celebration, Florida, in 1997, I felt like I was walking onto a movie or television set. The architecture in the Walt Disney designed new urbanist development looked like the quintessential New England town. Each house has a porch, but on the day I was there, the porches sat empty—waiting to welcome the arrival of their owners at the end of the work day. We walked through town, past the 50s- style movie marquee, and ate lunch at a 50s-style diner. At that point, Celebration was still growing. Across the street from the Bank of Celebration’ stood a sign marking the future home of the ‘Church in Celebration.’” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

204 Gated Communities Fenced-in neighborhoods with controlled access gates for people and automobiles. Main objective is to create a space of safety within the uncertain urban world. Secondary objective is to maintain or increase housing values in the neighborhood through enforcement of the neighborhood association’s bylaws. Many fear that the gated communities are a new form of segregation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

205 Ethnic Neighborhoods in the European City Ethnic neighborhoods in European cities are typically affiliated with migrants from former colonies. Migration to Europe is constrained by government policies and laws. European cities are typically more compact, densely populated, and walkable than American cities. Housing in the European city is often combined with places of work. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

206 Government Policy and Immigrant Accommodation Whether a public housing zone is divided into ethnic neighborhoods in a European city depends in large part on government policy. Brussels, Belgium: has very little public housing; immigrants live in privately owned rentals throughout the city. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: has a great deal of public housing and few ethnic neighborhoods within the public housing units. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

207 Ethnic Neighborhoods in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery City In cities of the periphery and semiperiphery, a sea of slum development typically begins where the permanent buildings end, in some cases engulfing and dwarfing the central city. Millions of migrants travel to such environments every year. City governments do not have the resources to adequately educate, medicate, or police the burgeoning populations. The vast slums of cities in poorer parts of the world are typically ethnically delineated, with new arrivals precariously accommodated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

208 Power and Ethnicity The settlement patterns of cities developed during the colonial period often persist long after The Informal Economy The economy that is not taxed and is not counted toward a country’s gross national income Remittances © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

209 From Colonial to Global CBD Geographers Richard Grant and Jan Nijman documented globalization in former colonial port cities, including Mumbai, India. A new spatially demarcated foreign presence has arisen. The city now has a global CBD at the heart of the original colonial city, housing mostly foreign corporations and multinational companies and linked mainly to the global economy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do People Share Cities?

210 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

211 Key Question 9.5 What role do cities play in globalization? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

212 World cities function at the global scale, beyond the reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the world economy. Felsenstein, Schamp, and Shachar: The world city is a node in globalization, reflecting processes that have “redrawn the limits on spatial interaction.” World cities do not exist merely to service players in the global economy. Some countries such as the United States and Germany have two or more world cities within their state borders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Role Do Cities Play in Globalization?

213 Cities as Spaces of Consumption Media corporations are helping transform urban centers into major entertainment districts where items are consumed © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

214 Thinking through the challenges to the state presented in Chapter 8, predict whether and under what circumstances world cities could replace states as the basic and most powerful form of political organization in the world. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

215 Urbanization

216  A country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and expressive of nationalistic feelings  Usually center of politics, economics, culture  Rank size rule does not apply to countries with a primate city

217  A crescent shaped zone of early urbanization extending across Eurasia from England to Japan

218  Colonialism increased the importance of coastal cities  interior cities became less important  Mercantile city brought about the “downtown” as we know it today  Nodes of a global network of commerce  Middle class  Became engulfed by desperate immigrants looking for opportunity  Emergence of a manufacturing city  Unregulated jumbles of activity  Poor sanitation  DISEASE  Elegant homes converted to tenement housing as wealthy & middle class moved out of downtown areas to escape immigrants

219  New World cities did not suffer as much as European cities.  Sub-Saharan Africa  least urbanized realm but fastest growing realm  2 nd half of twentieth century  manufacturing cities experience decline  Shift to tertiary services  Transportation advancement has led to the creation of the modern city  suburbs  More dispersed

220  Rural to urban land use  impact?  PO Muller  self sufficient entity containing its own major economic and cultural activities  2000 census  50% of Americans live in the suburbs  Essence of the modern American city

221  City where focus has shifted from CBD to urban fringe  Shopping malls  High tech light manufacturing  White collar firms  Entertainment & hotel complexes  Airports  Located along intersections of major freeways

222  Urban area is less dispersed  Urban amenities have not relocated to the suburbs  Do not display sharp contrasts of wealth as seen in American cities  Multiple family dwellings more common

223  Many built before modern transportation so streets are narrow and layout is more compact  More walking and use of metro than cars  Primate cities  Legacy of past is better preserved  Wars have taken their toll  Outlying towns have attracted high tech industries (outside of greenbelts)  GREENBELTS  areas around European cities that are left to natural state or are preserved gardens, parks, etc.  Limits urban sprawl  Contains suburbanization

224  Estimate  by the middle of this century, approximately 75% of ppl will live in urban settings  Hazards of site  No infrastructure  Land not intended for heavy urban use  Loss of land  NA loses about 1 million acres of farmland every year  China  3 million acres  Changed land cover  Paving  less rainfall permeates ground, washes pollutants into water sources  Pollution  Production of waste (lack of sewer facilities)  developing world  Demand for water  Urbanization increases water usage by five times per person  Changing consumption habits  More energy, meat (extends pastures & threatens forests)

225

226  Immigrants cluster together in an enclave within a city  All needs met  Invasion and succession  neighborhoods remain the same but new groups come in and out

227  Redlining  Blockbusting  Racial steering  used after blockbusting became illegal  Realtors encouraged blacks and whites to look for housing in areas that would promote changing ghetto boundaries  real estate turnover

228  Modernism v. Postmodernism  Gentrification & commercialization  DINKS & SINKS  Displacement of poor residents who cannot afford higher real estate  Inner cities  Less tax base  No funding  Govt housing  deglomeration


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