7Agricultural Villages Before urbanization, people often clustered in agricultural villages –a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture (mostly subsistence).about 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages
8The First Urban Revolution Two components enable the formation of cities: 1. an agricultural surplus (irrigation & large scale farming) 2. social stratification (a leadership class that controlled resources)
14Mesopotamia social inequality reflected in varying sizes of homes walled villagespalacespriest-king classlevied taxes & collected tributes from harvesttemples and shrines at centers of townsbuilt on artificial mounds often over 100 ft highmud walled homes for regular classleadership class held slavesno waste disposal or sanitationdisease was rampant, which kept the population small
15Nile River Valley link between urbanization and irrigation power concentrated in the hands of people who controlled the irrigation systemsno walled cities = singular controlgreat pyramids, tombs, & sphinx were built by slaves
16Indus River ValleyHarappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two of the first cities of the Indus River Valley.- intricately planned- houses equal in size- no palaces- no monuments-leadership class but no variation in houses-all homes had access toinfrastructure, includingdrains & stone linedwells-thick walls-significant trade overlong distances (coins)
17Huang He and Wei River Valleys The Chinese purposefully planned their cities. - centered on a vertical structure - inner wall built around center - temples and palaces for the leadership class placed inside the inner wall -rulers demonstrated their power by building elaborate structures, like the Great Wall of ChinaTerracotta Warriors guarding the tomb of the Chinese Emperor Qin Xi Huang
18Mesoamerica Mayan and Aztec Civilizations many ancient cities were theocratic centers where rulers were deemed to have divine authority and were god-kings
19MesoamericaBetween 300 and 900 CE, Altun Ha, Belize served as a thriving trade and distribution center for the Caribbean merchant canoe traffic.
21Diffusion of Urbanization The Greek Citiesby 500 BCE, Greeks were highly urbanized.network of more than 500 cities and townsconnected to trade routes diffusion of urbanizationinfluenced Roman citieson the mainland and on islandspoor sanitation, compact housingeach city had an acropolis and an agoraacropolis- highpoint of a city where most impressive structures were builtagora- public space (focus of commercial activity)
24Diffusion of Urbanization The Roman Citiesa system of cities and small towns, linked together with hundreds of miles of roads and sea routes. (transportation network)sites of Roman cities were typically for tradealso considered defensibility and religiona Roman city’s Forum combined the acropolis and agora into one space. (focal point of public life)Roman cities had extreme wealth and extreme poverty (between 1/3 and 2/3s of empire’s population was enslaved)used Greek rectangular grid patternmost cities had arenas
37EVOLUTION OF US URBAN SYSTEM Five Epochs of Metropolitan Evolution – John Borchert1. The Sail-Wagon Epoch ( ): primitive overland and waterway circulation - leading cities northeastern ports heavily oriented to European overseas trade - Hinterlands barely accessible.2. The Iron Horse Epoch ( ): dominated by steam-powered railroad, provided nation-wide transportation system, New York primate city by 18503. The Steel-Rail Epoch ( ): full establishment of national metropolitan system, increasing scale of manufacturing, rise of steel and automobile industries, steel rails
38Five Epochs of Metropolitan Evolution – (cont.) 4. The Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch ( ): maturation of national urban hierarchy, key elements were airplane and automobile, expansion of white-collar services jobs, growing pull of amenities (pleasant environments) stimulating urbanization of the suburbs5. The Satellite-Electronics-Jet Propulsion Epoch (1970- ): newest advances in information management, computer technologies, global communications, and intercontinental travel; favors globally-oriented metropolises.
39Shenzhen, China The Modern Process of Urbanization – a rural area can become urbanized quite quickly in the modern world
40Shenzhen, ChinaShenzhen changed from a fishing village to a major metropolitan area in just 25 years. 25 years ago, all of this land was duck ponds and rice paddies.
49Central Place Theory Activity HexagonsThreshold, Range, Multiplier Effects
50Christaller looked at the arrangement of urban place and functions Christaller looked at the arrangement of urban place and functions. He started trying to model what he saw. Ok, pour out your crackers onto your paper towel and start hypothesizing as Christaller did.
51Arrangement and Spacing of Urban Places circular shapes resulted in unserved or overlapped areashexagons had no gaps or overlapsthis suggests an inverse relationship of higher order and lower order settlements (towns and cities)theoretically, settlements will be equidistant from each otherin other words, big towns/cities are farther apart from each otherWhy?
52Definitions we need to know hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis, megalopolispopulation threshold - # of peoplemarket threshold – amount of $ in the place/arearange or range of salefunctional hierarchieslow order goodshigh order goodscomplementary region- exclusive hinterland within which the town has a monopoly on the sale of a certain good(s)rank-size rulebasic sectornon-basic sectormultiplier effect
53Assumptions of Central Place Theory isotropic plane – no variation (e.g., flat with no barriers to impede movementeven population distributionrational behavior by consumers – assume that people will minimize the distance they travel to obtain a good or servicethat is, Consumers visit the nearest central places that provide the function which they demandperfect competition and all sellers are trying to maximize their profitsconsumers have similar purchasing power and demand for goods and servicestransportation costs are equal in all directionsno provider of goods or services is able to earn excess profit(each supplier has a monopoly over a hinterland)central places vary in size - small village to a conurbationis part of a link in an urban hierarchy
54Application of Threshold and Range using Christaller’s Model low order goods have a low range and low threshold – fewer people needed to support it and thus shorter distances traveled to obtain itWhere are low order goods/services?higher ranges and higher threshold goods are sold in larger towns/cities – people will travel longer distances to obtain these goods/servicesExamples?How about a ski resort in DFW?Is there the threshold (market or population) for it?
55Limitations to CPT large areas of flat land are not common many forms of transport – costs of each are not necessarily proportionalpeople and wealth not evenly distributedpurchasing power of people differsperfect competition is not realistic – there are rich and poor
56Christaller’s Model Review: Urban places are ranked in an orderly hierarchy. One is moved? Everything will shift to balanceReal world has no absolutes, but Locational Theory does seem to workPlaces of same size with same number of functions would be spaced same distance apartLarge cities are spaced farther apart from each other than towns or villages
67Six processes at work in the city concentration — differential distribution of population and economic activities in a city, and the manner in which they have focused on the center of the citydecentralization — the location of activity away from the central citysegregation — the sorting out of population groups according to conscious preferences for associating with one group or another through bias and prejudice
68Six processes at work in the city specialization — similar to segregation only refers to the economic sectorinvasion — traditionally, a process through which a new activity or social group enters an areasuccession — a new use or social group gradually replaces the former occupantsThe following models were constructed to examine single cities and do not necessarily apply to metropolitan coalescences so common in today’s world.
72Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 1 the central business district (CBD)distinct pattern of income levels out to the commuters’ zoneextension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern
73Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 2 characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land userooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segmentoften includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began hereusually called the transition zone
75Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 3 the “workingmen’s quarters”solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2more stable than the transition zone around the CBDoften characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettosspreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing
76Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 4 middle class area of “better housing”established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar networkcommute to work in the CBD
77Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 5 consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbslocated either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad linesspacious lots and large housesfrom here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4
78Concentric zone modelTheory represented the American city in a new stage of developmentbefore the 1870s, cities such as New York had mixed neighborhoods where merchants’ stores and sweatshop factories were intermingled with mansions and hovelsrich and poor, immigrant and native-born, rubbed shoulders in the same neighborhoods
79Concentric zone modelIn Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great fire of 1871 leveled the corethe result of rebuilding was a more explicit social patterningChicago became a segregated city with a concentric patternthis was the city Burgess used for his modelthe actual map of the residential area does not exactly match his simplified concentric zones
81Concentric zone model critics of the model pointed out that even though portions of each zone did exist, rarely were they linked to totally surround the cityBurgess countered there were distinct barriers, such as old industrial centers, preventing the completion of the arcothers felt Burgess, as a sociologist, overemphasized residential patterns and did not give proper credit to other land uses
84Sector modelHomer Hoyt, an economist, presented his sector model in 1939.maintained high-rent districts were instrumental in shaping land-use structure of the citybecause these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges
85Sector modelHoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factorsmoves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildingswill progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industrywill move along the route of fastest transportationwill move toward open space
86Sector modelas high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled inmiddle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestigelow-rent areas fill remaining areasmoving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to lowthere are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s modelhe had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile
87Sector modelToday, major transportation arteries are generally freeways.surrounding areas are often low-rent districtscontrary to Hoyt’s theoryfreeways were imposed on existing urban patternoften built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less
88Multiple nuclei modelsuggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various pointsthe CBD was not the sole generator of change
90Multiple nuclei model equal weight must be given to: an old community on city outskirts around which new suburbs clusteredan industrial district that grew from an original waterfront locationlow-income area that began because of some social stigma attached to site
91Multiple nuclei modelmore than any other model takes into account the varied factors of decentralization in the structure of the North American citymany criticize the concentric zone and sector theories as being rather deterministic because they emphasize one single factormultiple nuclei theory encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social possibilitiesmost urban scholars feel Harris and Ullman succeeded in trying to integrate the disparate element of culture into workable model
92Multiple nuclei model rooted their model in four geographic principles certain activities require highly specialized facilitiesaccessible transportation for a factorylarge areas of open land for a housing tractcertain activities cluster because they profit from mutual associationcertain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same areacertain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations
98Latin American modelmore complex because of influence of local cultures on urban developmentdifficult to group cities of the developing world into one or two comprehensive modelsLatin American model is shown in next slide
100Latin American modelgeneralized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and articulates pervasive influence of international forces, both Western and non-Westernin contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specializeda reliance on public transit that serves the central cityexistence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD
101Latin American modeloutside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded bythe elite residential sectorthese two zones are interrelated and called the spine/sectoressentially an extension of the CBD down a major boulevardhere are the city’s important amenities — parks, theaters, restaurants, and even golf coursesstrict zoning and land controls ensure continuation of these activities, protecting elite from incursions by low-income squatters
102Latin American model inner-city zone of maturity less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homeshomes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sectorarea of upward mobility
103Latin American model zone of accretion diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and qualitytransition between zone of maturity and next zonearea of ongoing construction and changesome neighborhoods have city-provided utilitiesother blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services
104Latin American model zone of peripheral squatter settlements where most recent migrants are foundfringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American citieshouses often built from scavenged materialsgives the appearance of a refugee campsurrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materialsstreets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated”residents who work have a long commutemany are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods
109Urban Realms ModelEach realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.
110Feminist critiquesmodels assume only one person is a wage worker — the male headignore dual-income families and households headed by single womenwomen contend with a larger array of factors in making locational decisionsdistances to child care and school facilitiesother important services important for different members of a familytraditional models that assume a spatial separation of workplace and home are no longer appropriate
111Feminist critiquesresults of a study of activity patterns of working parentswomen living in a city have access to wider array of employment opportunitiesbetter able to combine domestic and wage labor than women in suburbsmany middle class women choose a gentrified inner-city location to livehope this area will offer amenities of suburbs—good schools and safetyaccommodate their activity patternsother research has shown some businesses locate offices in suburbs because they rely on labor of highly educated, middle class women spatially constrained by domestic work
112Feminist critiquesmost criticisms of above models focus or their inability to account for all the complexities of urban formsall three models assume urban patterns are shaped by economic trade-offs between:desire to live in suburban neighborhood appropriate to one’s economic statusneed to live close to the city center for employment opportunities
113Feminist critiquesmost women seek employment closer to home than men even those without small childrencriticism of models by womenmost families require two real wage earnersmodels tend to reflect an urban structure that isolates women who do not participate in the urban labor marketraises problems of timing and organization for those who combine waged and domestic laborcreated by men who shared certain assumptions about how cities operate, and represent a partial view of urban life
114Feminist critiquesother theories incorporated alternative perspective of female scholarsstudies using mostly female students, focused on “race,” ethnicity, class, and housing in Chicagoemphasized role of landlords in shaping discrimination in the housing marketstudy by urban historian Raymond Mohlfollows the making of black ghettos in Miami between 1940 and 1960reveals role of public policy decisions, landlordism, and discrimination
115apartheid and post-apartheid city apartheid —state-sanctioned policies of segregating “races”intended effects of these policies on urban form are delineated in next slide
117apartheid and post-apartheid city important components of the apartheid statepolicies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950first was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and coloredsecond called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group
118apartheid and post-apartheid city important components of the apartheid stategovernment passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950effects of the two actsdowntowns were restricted to whitesareas for non-whites were peripheral, restricted, and often without urban services—transportation or shoppinglarge numbers of non-whites were displaced with little or no compensationbuffer zones were created between residential to curtail contact
119apartheid and post-apartheid city model apartheid city most closely resembles the sector modelcities were artificially divided into discrete areasnon-white populations suffered the consequencesnotorious example — Sophiatown in Johannesburgremains to be seen what form the post-apartheid city will take
120Soviet and post-Soviet city cities were shaped by the Bolshevik revolution of 1917socialist principles called for the nationalization of all resourceseconomics would no longer dictate land-use—allocation planners wouldnew ideals had profound effect on urban form of Soviet cities
121The Soviet and post-Soviet city Soviet policies attempted to create a more equitable arrangement of land usesrelative absence of residential segregation according to socioeconomic statusequitable housing facilities for most citizensrelatively equal accessibility to sites for distribution of consumer itemscultural amenities located and priced to be accessible to as many people as possibleadequate and accessible public transportation
122The Soviet and post-Soviet city The situation outlined above was less than ideal.By the 1970s and 1980s many Soviets realized their standards of living were well below those in the west.A centralized planning system was not successful.In the late 1980s economic restructuring introduced perestroyka.The post-Soviet citymarket forces are again the dominant force in shaping urban land usespace and scale of urban change are unprecedented
124The Soviet and post-Soviet city privatization of the housing market —example of Moscowprivate housing grew from 9.3 percent in 1990 to 49.6 percent in 1994does not mean better housing for all peoplemany people cannot afford the high pricesapartments are particularly expensive in the center of Moscowmost people have no choice but to live in communal apartments from the old Soviet system
125The Soviet and post-Soviet city cities are taking on the look of western citiesdowntowns now have most expensive landincreasingly dominated by retailing outlets of familiar Western companiestall office buildings housing financial activities are replacing industrial buildingsprocesses akin to gentrification are taking place in city centers displacing residents to peripheral portions of the citiesThe outcome of the new changes is not certain and will be continued to be studied.
126Culture Regions urban culture regions cultural diffusion in the city the cultural ecology of the citycultural integration and models of the cityurban landscapes
127Themes in cityscape study landscape dynamicsbecause North Americans are a restless people, settlements are cauldrons of changedowntown activities creeping into residential areasdeteriorated farmland on city outskirtsolder buildings demolished for newwhen visual clues are mapped and analyzed, they offer evidence for current of change
129Themes in cityscape study Equally interesting is to note where change in not occurring.an unchanging landscape conveys an important messagepart of the city is stagnant because it is removed from those forces effecting change in other partsconscious attempt by local residents to inhibit changepreserve open space by resisting suburban developmentpreserving a historical landmark
131Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia Cities grow through intensification of already urbanized areas and by extensification into rural areas.This new development is on agricultural land near Washington, DC.Many farmers on urban peripheries, lured by rising land prices, ultimately sell to developers.
132Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia As a mixture of open land and urban structures, this is a good example of leapfrog, or checkerboard development.Moreover, the houses are being sold as “Gentlemen Farms,” a landscape of the elite.
133Themes in cityscape study The city as palimpsestBecause city landscapes change, they offer a field for uncovering remnants of the pastpalimpsestan old parchment used over and over for written messagesbefore a new message could be written, the old was erased, but rarely were all previous characters and words completely obliteratedthe mosaic of old and new is called a palimpsest — used by geographers to describe visual mixture of old and new in cultural landscapes
135City as palimpsest: Singapore Like many cities, Singapore’s landscape is one of historic artifacts amidst the contemporary fabric. This is the core of old Singapore, as developed by the British after Strategically situated on the Straits of Melaka, the city functioned as an important entreport in Southeast Asia attracting a population of Chinese, Indians, Malays, and Europeans.
136City as Palimpsest: Singapore Trade offices, shophouses, and godowns (warehouses) lined the Singapore river and commercial activity choked the area. After Singapore became independent in , the combination of rapid population growth and aging infrastructure called for a renewal plan. Old housing stock and godowns were razed to be replaced by modern public housing, malls and office buildings.
137City as Palimpsest: Singapore In the 1980s, people realized that they were destroying the character of the city and efforts were made to preserve and restore some of old Singapore. Waterfront shophouses have been “boutiqued” into clubs and restaurants. Here, remnants of the past stand in the shadow of the symbols fo the future: The Bank of the People’s Republic of China (left) and the Telecom building.
138Themes in cityscape study symbolic cityscapeslandscapes contain more than literal messages about economic functionsloaded with figurative or metaphorical meaningsubjectivized emotion, memories, and content essential to the social fabricto some, skyscrapers are more than high-rise buildingshistoric landscapes help people define themselves in timeestablish social continuity with the pastcodify a forgotten, yet sometimes idealized, past
139Themes in cityscape study D.W. Minig maintains there are three highly symbolized townscapes in the United Statesthe New England villageMain Street of Middle AmericaCalifornia Suburbiaeach is based upon an actual landscape of a particular regioneach has influenced the shaping of the American scene over broader areas
141Themes in cityscape study Cultural landscape is important vehicle for constructing and maintaining social and ethnic distinctions.conspicuous consumption is a major means for conveying social identityelite landscapes are created through large-lot zoning, imitation country estates, and detailed ornamental iconographycultural geographers are interested in how townscapes and landmarks take on symbolic significancequestion whether idealizations are based on some sort of reality or fabricated from diverse predilectionsinterested in how to assess the impact of symbolic landscapesmessages inherent in loaded landscapes determine how we treat our environment-bow it is managed, changed, or protected
143Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy Pigeons, starlings, and sparrows thrive in urban environments. Feral pigeons, descended from rock doves, favoring cliff-face roosts, like to nest in similar building niches. Accumulated droppings raise serious problems. They corrode stonework, particularly limestone, and many historic buildings and statues have been irreparably damaged.
144Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy Fouled pavements are slippery and hazardous to pedestrians. Pigeon excreta, feathers and detritus can block gutters and drains providing a potential health hazard. In many cities today, people are discouraged from feeding pigeons and renovated buildings are fitted with spiked rails to discourage roosting.
145Themes in cityscape study perception of the citySocial scientists assume if we know what people see and react to in the city we can design and create a more humane urban environment.Kevin Lynch, an urban designer, assumed all residents have a mental map of the city.figured out ways people could convey their mental map to othersWhat do people react favorably or negatively to?What do they block out?
146Themes in cityscape study perception of the cityOn the basis of interviews, Lynch suggested five important elements in mental maps of cities:pathways — threads that hold our maps togetheredges — tend to define the extremes of our urban visionnodes — any place where important pathways come togetherdistricts — small areas with a common identitylandmarks — reference points that stand out because of shape, height, color, or historic importance.
147Themes in cityscape study Lynch saw some parts of the cities were more legible than others.legibility comes when urban landscape offers clear pathways, nodes, district, edges, and landmarksless legible parts of the city do not offer such precise landscapeLynch found some cities more legible than others.Jersey City is a city of low legibilitywedged between New York City and Newarkfragmented by railroads and highwaysresidents’ mental maps of Jersey City have large blank areas
148Themes in cityscape study distinct ethnic, gender, and age variables to mental maps of citiesoften influence everyday behaviorwomen feel more vulnerable to crime, especially rapewomen will tend to avoid certain areas of a city at night
149The new urban landscape shopping mallsmost are not designed to be seen from the outsideretail districts of the 18O0s~and early 1900s cities had grand architectural displays along the major boulevardsmalls are often located near an off ramp of a major freewayclose to middle and upper-class residential neighborhoods
150The new urban landscape shopping mallscharacteristic form of malls of the 1960ssimple, linear form, with department stores at each end functioning as anchorsusually had 20 to 30 smaller shops connecting the two endsin the 1970s and 1980s, larger malls had a more complex formexample: Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesotamalls today are often several stories tall and may have 5 or 6 anchor stores, and up to 400 smaller shops
152The new urban landscape office parksoffice buildings no longer need to be located in the center citydevelopment of communication technologiesmajor interstates connect metropolitan areascheaper rent in suburban locationsconvenience of easy-access parking and privacy of a separate locationbeing constructed throughout suburban America
153The new urban landscape office parksnext slide shows location of office parks in metropolitan Atlantamany are occupied by regional and national headquarters of large corporations or local sales and professional officesmany offices will locate together and rent or buy space from a land development company to take advantage of economies of scale
155The new urban landscape office parksthe use of the term park points to conscious anti-urban imagerytend to be horizontal in shape — three to six stories tallmany are surrounded by a well-landscaped outdoor spacehuman-made lakes and waterfalls, jogging paths, fitness trails, and picnic tables
157The new urban landscape office parksdo remove workers from social diversity of an urban locationmany office parks are located along what have been called high-tech corridors — areas along limited-access highwaysthis new type of commercial landscape is gradually replacing downtowns as the workplace for most Americans
158The new urban landscape master-planned communitiesmany newer residential developments on suburban fringes are planned and built as complete neighborhoods by private development companiesinclude architecturally compatible housinghave a variety of recreational facilitiesexploit various land-use restrictions and zoning regulations to maintain control over land values
159The new urban landscape master-planned communitiesexample of Weston in south Floridacovers approximately ten thousand acresland use is completely regulated within gated area and also along the road system connecting Weston to the interstateshrubbery is planted to shield residents from roadway viewsigns are uniform in style
161The new urban landscape festival settingsoften gentrification efforts focus on a multiuse redevelopment scheme built around a particular setting, often one with historical associationwaterfronts are commonly chosen as focal pointscomplexes integrate retailing, office, and entertainment activitiesKnox suggests these developments are “distinctive as new landscape elements merely because of their scale and their consequent ability to stage — or merely to be — the spectacular”
163Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong Festival settings, both outdoors and indoors, are used to attract customers. There is typically one or more themes with flamboyant flags, signs, music and entertainment. Retail establishments include trendy shops, restaurants, and entertainment facilities.
164Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong This is one of the several ultra-modern, enclosed malls in Hong Kong. The theme here is the Dragon Boat Festival, held annually in the lunar calendar’s fifth month. This view is from an open, tiered restaurant.
165The new urban landscape festival settingsSome festival settings serve as sites for concerts, ethnic festivals, and street performances.also focal points for more informal human interactions usually associated with urban lifein this sense do perform a vital function in the attempt to revitalize downtownsmassive displays of wealth and consumption often stand in contrast to neighboring areas that have received little benefit from these projects
167The new urban landscape “militarized” spacemeaning the increasing use of space to set up defenses against elements of the city considered undesirableincludes landscaping development that range from:lack of street furniture to stop homeless living on the streetsgated and guarded residential communitiescomplete segregation of classes and races’ within the cityAs Davis says, “cities of all sizes are rushing to apply and profit from a formula that links together clustered development, social homogeneity, and a perception of security.”Has taken on epic proportions as many big American cities become “militarized” spaces.
169The new urban landscape decline of public spacerelated to the increase in “militarized” spacechange in shopping patterns from downtown to shopping mallsmany city governments have joined with developers to built enclosed walkways above or below city streetsprovides climate-controlled conditionsprovides pedestrians with a “safe” environment to avoid possible confrontations on the streetsome scholars suggest the Internet is a new forum for social and political interaction
171A New Landmark: London, England This is the high-tech, engineering style (1986) of Lloyd’s of London Insurance building. Designed by Richard Rogers, co-designer of the Pompidou Center in Paris, it stands as a challenge to those in love with the past.
172A New Landmark: London, England It stimulates controversy and has become a landmark enhancing the legibility of the city. Not only is it made of reflective materials and the glass atrium suspended on central pillars, but much of what is traditionally inside, such as stairways, elevators and lavatories, is now on the outside. It is a building with its guts exposed. The black structure is Barclay’s Bank.
174Primate CityA country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and expressive of nationalistic feelingsUsually center of politics, economics, cultureRank size rule does not apply to countries with a primate city
175Urban BananaA crescent shaped zone of early urbanization extending across Eurasia from England to Japan
176Effects of Urbanization Colonialism increased the importance of coastal cities interior cities became less importantMercantile city brought about the “downtown” as we know it todayNodes of a global network of commerceMiddle classBecame engulfed by desperate immigrants looking for opportunityEmergence of a manufacturing cityUnregulated jumbles of activityPoor sanitation DISEASEElegant homes converted to tenement housing as wealthy & middle class moved out of downtown areas to escape immigrants
177Effects of Urbanization New World cities did not suffer as much as European cities.Sub-Saharan Africa least urbanized realm but fastest growing realm2nd half of twentieth century manufacturing cities experience declineShift to tertiary servicesTransportation advancement has led to the creation of the modern city suburbsMore dispersed
178American City: A study of the suburbs Rural to urban land use impact?PO Muller self sufficient entity containing its own major economic and cultural activities2000 census 50% of Americans live in the suburbsEssence of the modern American city
179Edge cities City where focus has shifted from CBD to urban fringe Shopping mallsHigh tech light manufacturingWhite collar firmsEntertainment & hotel complexesAirportsLocated along intersections of major freeways
180Canadian city Urban area is less dispersed Urban amenities have not relocated to the suburbsDo not display sharp contrasts of wealth as seen in American citiesMultiple family dwellings more common
181European CityMany built before modern transportation so streets are narrow and layout is more compactMore walking and use of metro than carsPrimate citiesLegacy of past is better preservedWars have taken their tollOutlying towns have attracted high tech industries (outside of greenbelts)GREENBELTS areas around European cities that are left to natural state or are preserved gardens, parks, etc.Limits urban sprawlContains suburbanization
182Environmental Impact of Urbanization Estimate by the middle of this century, approximately 75% of ppl will live in urban settingsHazards of siteNo infrastructureLand not intended for heavy urban useLoss of landNA loses about 1 million acres of farmland every yearChina 3 million acresChanged land coverPaving less rainfall permeates ground, washes pollutants into water sourcesPollutionProduction of waste (lack of sewer facilities) developing worldDemand for waterUrbanization increases water usage by five times per personChanging consumption habitsMore energy, meat (extends pastures & threatens forests)
184Ethnic NeighborhoodsImmigrants cluster together in an enclave within a cityAll needs metInvasion and succession neighborhoods remain the same but new groups come in and out
185Policies in the US Redlining Blockbusting Racial steering used after blockbusting became illegalRealtors encouraged blacks and whites to look for housing in areas that would promote changing ghetto boundaries real estate turnover
186The New City Modernism v. Postmodernism Gentrification & commercializationDINKS & SINKSDisplacement of poor residents who cannot afford higher real estateInner citiesLess tax baseNo fundingGovt housingdeglomeration
187The Cloverleaf vs The Access Road and the AM-PM side of the Market Two Differing Ideas on Urban and Economic Development
216Primate CityA country’s leading city, always disproportionately large and expressive of nationalistic feelingsUsually center of politics, economics, cultureRank size rule does not apply to countries with a primate city
217Urban BananaA crescent shaped zone of early urbanization extending across Eurasia from England to Japan
218Effects of Urbanization Colonialism increased the importance of coastal cities interior cities became less importantMercantile city brought about the “downtown” as we know it todayNodes of a global network of commerceMiddle classBecame engulfed by desperate immigrants looking for opportunityEmergence of a manufacturing cityUnregulated jumbles of activityPoor sanitation DISEASEElegant homes converted to tenement housing as wealthy & middle class moved out of downtown areas to escape immigrants
219Effects of Urbanization New World cities did not suffer as much as European cities.Sub-Saharan Africa least urbanized realm but fastest growing realm2nd half of twentieth century manufacturing cities experience declineShift to tertiary servicesTransportation advancement has led to the creation of the modern city suburbsMore dispersed
220American City: A study of the suburbs Rural to urban land use impact?PO Muller self sufficient entity containing its own major economic and cultural activities2000 census 50% of Americans live in the suburbsEssence of the modern American city
221Edge cities City where focus has shifted from CBD to urban fringe Shopping mallsHigh tech light manufacturingWhite collar firmsEntertainment & hotel complexesAirportsLocated along intersections of major freeways
222Canadian city Urban area is less dispersed Urban amenities have not relocated to the suburbsDo not display sharp contrasts of wealth as seen in American citiesMultiple family dwellings more common
223European CityMany built before modern transportation so streets are narrow and layout is more compactMore walking and use of metro than carsPrimate citiesLegacy of past is better preservedWars have taken their tollOutlying towns have attracted high tech industries (outside of greenbelts)GREENBELTS areas around European cities that are left to natural state or are preserved gardens, parks, etc.Limits urban sprawlContains suburbanization
224Environmental Impact of Urbanization Estimate by the middle of this century, approximately 75% of ppl will live in urban settingsHazards of siteNo infrastructureLand not intended for heavy urban useLoss of landNA loses about 1 million acres of farmland every yearChina 3 million acresChanged land coverPaving less rainfall permeates ground, washes pollutants into water sourcesPollutionProduction of waste (lack of sewer facilities) developing worldDemand for waterUrbanization increases water usage by five times per personChanging consumption habitsMore energy, meat (extends pastures & threatens forests)
226Ethnic NeighborhoodsImmigrants cluster together in an enclave within a cityAll needs metInvasion and succession neighborhoods remain the same but new groups come in and out
227Policies in the US Redlining Blockbusting Racial steering used after blockbusting became illegalRealtors encouraged blacks and whites to look for housing in areas that would promote changing ghetto boundaries real estate turnover
228The New City Modernism v. Postmodernism Gentrification & commercializationDINKS & SINKSDisplacement of poor residents who cannot afford higher real estateInner citiesLess tax baseNo fundingGovt housingdeglomeration