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Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars. Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Evolutionary tracks for stars of differing mass A star like our Sun never.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars. Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Evolutionary tracks for stars of differing mass A star like our Sun never."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars

2 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Evolutionary tracks for stars of differing mass A star like our Sun never becomes hot enough in core to burn heavier elements!! II evolution of 5 solar mass star (pop I) For a M> 1Msun core hot enough (>10 million K) for CNO cycle to operate Net effect, 4 H  1He (CNO just catalysts) for PP chain CNO cycle c.f. (E nuc = energy released per unit mass) O stars only spend 10 6 years on main sequence!!

3 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Stellar structure : Lower Main Sequence Upper Main Sequence radiative core, convective outer layers energy via PP chain on MS well-mixed convective core, radiative envelope energy mostly by CNO cycle on main sequence CNO dominates above 20million K (Eg Solar masses) (Eg 5 Msun)

4 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Once H in core virtually exhausted, core contracts due to drop in pressure, H burns in shell around He core. Burnt material (He) added to core, density increases. Eventually core becomes so dense  contracts and heats up  energy generation in shell accelerates, outer envelope expands, surface temperature drops (moves to right on HR diagram). Lower temperature increases opacity, convection in envelope increases transport of energy to surface, luminosity rises  RGB Core continues to contract (T> 100million K)  Triple-alpha process in core. He ignites, but no helium flash) NB UMS stars are convective in the core, materials are well mixed He ignition ~1.34Msun

5 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Rapid expansion of core leads to reduction in luminosity (much less dramatic in this case). He burning core H burning shell. Eventually He burning dominates, surface temp rises (moves to left on H-R diagram) Finally He in core exhausted, C core contracts, now He burning in shell, and H burning in shell, heat from contraction, accelerates process, outer envelope expands  AGB After this evolution uncertain, thermal pulses drive strong wind leaving PN and exposed core, or star may become Supernova 5-8Msun stars can burn Carbon to Oxygen via (2 nd loop on H-R diagram) Serious mass loss via strong superwinds NB UMS stars are convective in the core, materials are well mixed He ignition

6 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars III Evolution of >8 solar mass star Apart from an initial rise on main sequence, evolution is almost horizontal. i.e. evolution occurs at almost constant luminosity (blue giant  red-giant  blue giant etc) Large stellar winds/mass loss even on main sequence (~10 -6 to Msun/yr). Usual reactions - PP-chain+CNO T~10 7 K T~10 8 K But also T~10 8 K T~6x10 8 K

7 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars  -process must end at Fe because Fe is at peak of BE curve and,  -processes, e.g. All reactions beyond Fe endothermic i.e. require more energy than they produce

8 Dr Matt Burleigh Ignition of each new burning process is preceded by contraction and heating up of core. Stellar evolutionary track oscillates on HR diagram as each new energy source becomes available NB burning timescales very short at end (e.g. He  C 10 6 years, C  O 10 3 yrs, Si  Fe in just a few days) If at the end of  -process,core mass exceeds 1.4Msun (Chandrasekhar limit), electron degeneracy pressure can no longer support star and core collapses (1~sec). When T> 6x10 9 K, photodisintegration occurs The Sun and the Stars Endothermic!! requires 100Mev  collapse accelerates Energy removed rapidly from core, core contraction accelerates

9 Dr Matt Burleigh Core: R~ 0.01Rsun,  ~10 15 g/cm3, M~1.4Msun Eventually neutron degeneracy pressure opposes collapse (can be exceeded by ~50%), core-bounce – contraction of core heats outer layers which burn explosively, star literally explodes as a Type II Supernova leaving dense core of neutrons (R~5km) – a neutron-star Simulations suggest initial shock wave may stall, neutrino trapping may help drive off outer layers. r-processes (rapid) manufacture heavy elements L~10 9 Lsun (Mv= -20) If M>25 Msun, neutron degeneracy pressure cannot halt collapse – star becomes a black-hole The Sun and the Stars

10 Dr Matt Burleigh Type II Supernovae

11 Dr Matt Burleigh Stage Physical processes Protostar Dust and gas cloud collapses rapidly, accompanied by heating of the interior and ionisation of atoms PMS Semihydrostatic equilibrium; contraction and heating continue ZAMS Hydrogen burning commences Initial evolution on the main sequence Hydrogen consumed in the core; some contraction occurs Evolution off the main sequence Hydrogen depleted in the core, isothermal helium core and hydrogen-burning established Evolution to the right in the H-R diagram Core rapidly contracts, envelope expands, hydrogen-burning shell narrows Red giant Energy output increases, convective envelope forms, helium burning begins Cepheid Convective shell contracts, core helium burning becomes the major energy source Supergiant Helium-burning shell forms Evolutionary phases of a massive star

12 Dr Matt Burleigh Type II Supernovae Explosion of stellar core stellar core to form neutron star Absolute magnitudes from –16 to –20 (energy ~10 44 J) –e.g. China, SN of 1054 reached m V =-6 (remnant is Crab Nebula) Ejects a large fraction of original mass with v~ km s -1 Seen in spiral galaxies only, especially in spiral arms… Population I stars SN 1987A in LMC

13 Dr Matt Burleigh

14 Type Ia Supernovae Seen in both elliptical and spiral galaxies… Population I & II stars Progenitors are H-deficient, highly evolved stars Mechanism not well understood –Single degenerate: Accretion onto a white dwarf from a companion star increases M WD > Chandrasekhar limit –Double degenerate: Merger of two WDs to give M > 1.4M  –Both mechanisms may operate

15 Dr Matt Burleigh SN2014J in M82: closest SNIa for 42 years Discovered by Dr Steve Fossey & students at University College London’s Mill Hill Observatory (0.35m telescope) on 21 st January 2014

16 Dr Matt Burleigh Supernovae: Key Points SN responsible for nucleosynthesis of element above 56 Fe Remnant neutron stars… sometimes revealed as pulsars Shockwave heating of interstellar medium… Supernova Remnants

17 Dr Matt Burleigh Supernova RemnantsVela Crab Nebula

18 Dr Matt Burleigh Supernova Remnants Cassiopiea A

19 Dr Matt Burleigh Supernova expansion

20 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars Crab nebula 1054 SN Example SN light-curves, type I and type II

21 Dr Matt Burleigh The Sun and the Stars IV Evolution of very low mass stars Stars < 0.08Msun never make it onto the main sequence. Gravitational contraction does not heat the gas efficiently, and their cores are degenerate long before they are hot enough to start thermonuclear reactions. These “failed stars” simply cool as Brown dwarfs


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