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Major approaches to English language teaching TSE, Pui Yan Penny (10401571) YAU, Wai Po Ivory (10401296) LEE, Sze Ling Sheera (10401520) HUNG, Po Yan Alyssa.

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Presentation on theme: "Major approaches to English language teaching TSE, Pui Yan Penny (10401571) YAU, Wai Po Ivory (10401296) LEE, Sze Ling Sheera (10401520) HUNG, Po Yan Alyssa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major approaches to English language teaching TSE, Pui Yan Penny ( ) YAU, Wai Po Ivory ( ) LEE, Sze Ling Sheera ( ) HUNG, Po Yan Alyssa ( )

2 Are there alternatives to CLT and TBL for Hong Kong schools ’ context?

3 The answer is … Postmethod

4 The development of ELT methodology in Hong Kong Prior to 1950s – Grammar- translation 1950s-60s – Direct method 1970s – Oral-structural approach 1980s – Communicative approach (CLT) 1990s – Communicative approach + Task- based learning (TBL) Present – Postmethod?

5 Postmethod condition refers to the qualities of the contemporary era in English language teaching in which previously well trusted methods are put under serious scrutiny and in which a body of methods and techniques collected from all previous methods and approaches are used pragmatically with a belief that such an eclectic practice leads to success. (Arikan, K) Online Submission, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies v2 n1 Apr 2006

6 The postmethod condition signifies:  A search for an alternative to method rather than an alternative method.  Teacher autonomy  Principled pragmatism

7 What are the ten macrostrategies suggested in postmethod teaching?

8 Ten macrostrategies

9 Macrostrategy 1: Maximize Learning Opportunities  Teachers have two roles  First role of teacher: creators of learning opportunities  Duties: - Willing to modify their lesson plans based on feedback to suit the needs of target learners  Second role of teacher: utilizers of learning opportunities (created by learners)  Duties: Shouldn ’ t ignore contributory discourse from learners Must bring learners ’ problems to the attention of the class

10 Clarification Confirmation Comprehension checks Requests Repairing Reacting Turn taking - e.g. Design some small group activities Macrostrategy 2: Facilitate Negotiated Interaction  Student-Student, Student-Teacher interaction

11 - Reduce the miscommunication between teachers and students - 10 sources of perceptual mismatch: * Cognitive * Cultural * Communicative * Evaluative * Linguistic * Procedural * Pedagogy * Instructional * Strategic * Attitudinal Macrostrategy 3: Minimize Perceptual Mismatches

12 Macrostrategy 4: Activate Intuitive Heuristics  Provide adequate textual data so that students can infer grammatical rules.  Encouraging self-discovery and self - learning

13 Macrostrategy 5: Foster Language Awareness  Language awareness (LA) : a person ’ s sensitivity to and awareness of the nature of language and its role in human life (Hawkins, 1984; James & Garret, 1991)  How to achieve? (Teacher ’ s role ) - Draw learners ’ attention to the formal properties of L2 deliberately - Lessons should be learner-oriented, cyclic & holistic - Strategies adopted: Understanding, general principals & operational experience

14 Macrostrategy 6: Contextualize Linguistics Input  The practical study of language should be connected texts (Sweet, 1899, 1984)  Words  sentence, sentences  meaningful contexts  The nature of language is integrated  shouldn ’ t be taught in discrete items  How to achieve? (Teacher ’ s role )  Classroom teacher takes more responsibility than textbooks authors / syllabus writers  Succeed / fail in creating contexts for meaning making within classrooms ( language learning scenarios, problem-solving tasks, simulation & gaming role plays)

15 Macrostrategy 7: Integrate Language Skills  Traditional sequencing & identification of language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing (= remnant of audio- lingual era)  Fragmenting language skills  runs counter to the parallel & interactive nature of language and language behaviour  Must integrate language skills  effective language teaching  Knowledge & language ability are best developed when it is learned and used holistically

16 Macrostrategy 8: Promote Learner Autonomy  Help learners learn how to learn  Equip them with the means necessary to self-direct their learning  Raise the consciousness of good language learners about the learning strategies they seem to possess intuitively  Make the strategies are explicit & systematic so  the strategies are available to other learners and improve their language learning

17 Macrostrategy 9: Raise Cultural Consciousness  Culture teaching aims at helping the learners gain an understanding of the native speaker ’ s perspective.  Both teachers & learners can be the cultural informants  Enables ‘ cultural versatility ’ & raise learners ’ self-esteem

18 Macrostrategy 10: Ensure Social Relevance  Learning/ teaching is not a discrete activity  Embedded in the larger societal context  Social context shapes learning / teaching issues including: - Motivation for L2 learning - The goal of L2 learning - The functions of L2 at home & community, etc - “ The learner is not becoming an imitation native speaker, but a person who can stand between the two languages, using both when appropriate. ”

19 Concept of CLT and Context Approach

20 Advantages of Postmethod  Context Approach CLT ApproachContext Approach Complete answerConsideration of the whole context If we don ’ t have CLT, then we can ’ t learn a language. Methodology is just one factor in learning a language.

21 Advantages of Postmethod  Context Approach CLT ApproachContext Approach No other factors count in learning a language – only teaching methodology. Other factors may be more important. If you don ’ t have CLT, then you are backward. Other methods and approaches may be equally valid.

22 Advantages of Postmethod Aspects of the Context Approach  Individuals  Classroom culture  Local culture  National culture

23 Advantages of Postmethod  Aspects of the Context Approach Individuals - Personal difference - Learning styles - Learning Strategies - Personal motivation Classroom Culture - Group dynamics - Group motivation - Classroom environment - School environment Local Culture -Regional difference -Status of T and S in community -Attitude and behaviour of parents National Culture -Political context -Religious context -Social context -National environment

24 Requirements for Implementation of Postmethod  Teachers constant self-reflections  Teachers centrality in developing English language teaching  Teachers education and development program

25 Forum Time (15 minutes)  Do you think postmethod is feasible in your own classroom teaching?  State your reasons.

26 Conclusion  There is no single method that is the best for ELT  Limitations of different methods  postmethod  3P  Particularity, possibility, practicality  There are always alternatives instead of one single method

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