Presentation on theme: "Major approaches to English language teaching TSE, Pui Yan Penny (10401571) YAU, Wai Po Ivory (10401296) LEE, Sze Ling Sheera (10401520) HUNG, Po Yan Alyssa."— Presentation transcript:
Major approaches to English language teaching TSE, Pui Yan Penny ( ) YAU, Wai Po Ivory ( ) LEE, Sze Ling Sheera ( ) HUNG, Po Yan Alyssa ( )
Are there alternatives to CLT and TBL for Hong Kong schools ’ context?
The answer is … Postmethod
The development of ELT methodology in Hong Kong Prior to 1950s – Grammar- translation 1950s-60s – Direct method 1970s – Oral-structural approach 1980s – Communicative approach (CLT) 1990s – Communicative approach + Task- based learning (TBL) Present – Postmethod?
Postmethod condition refers to the qualities of the contemporary era in English language teaching in which previously well trusted methods are put under serious scrutiny and in which a body of methods and techniques collected from all previous methods and approaches are used pragmatically with a belief that such an eclectic practice leads to success. (Arikan, K) Online Submission, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies v2 n1 Apr 2006
The postmethod condition signifies: A search for an alternative to method rather than an alternative method. Teacher autonomy Principled pragmatism
What are the ten macrostrategies suggested in postmethod teaching?
Macrostrategy 1: Maximize Learning Opportunities Teachers have two roles First role of teacher: creators of learning opportunities Duties: - Willing to modify their lesson plans based on feedback to suit the needs of target learners Second role of teacher: utilizers of learning opportunities (created by learners) Duties: Shouldn ’ t ignore contributory discourse from learners Must bring learners ’ problems to the attention of the class
Clarification Confirmation Comprehension checks Requests Repairing Reacting Turn taking - e.g. Design some small group activities Macrostrategy 2: Facilitate Negotiated Interaction Student-Student, Student-Teacher interaction
- Reduce the miscommunication between teachers and students - 10 sources of perceptual mismatch: * Cognitive * Cultural * Communicative * Evaluative * Linguistic * Procedural * Pedagogy * Instructional * Strategic * Attitudinal Macrostrategy 3: Minimize Perceptual Mismatches
Macrostrategy 4: Activate Intuitive Heuristics Provide adequate textual data so that students can infer grammatical rules. Encouraging self-discovery and self - learning
Macrostrategy 5: Foster Language Awareness Language awareness (LA) : a person ’ s sensitivity to and awareness of the nature of language and its role in human life (Hawkins, 1984; James & Garret, 1991) How to achieve? (Teacher ’ s role ) - Draw learners ’ attention to the formal properties of L2 deliberately - Lessons should be learner-oriented, cyclic & holistic - Strategies adopted: Understanding, general principals & operational experience
Macrostrategy 6: Contextualize Linguistics Input The practical study of language should be connected texts (Sweet, 1899, 1984) Words sentence, sentences meaningful contexts The nature of language is integrated shouldn ’ t be taught in discrete items How to achieve? (Teacher ’ s role ) Classroom teacher takes more responsibility than textbooks authors / syllabus writers Succeed / fail in creating contexts for meaning making within classrooms ( language learning scenarios, problem-solving tasks, simulation & gaming role plays)
Macrostrategy 7: Integrate Language Skills Traditional sequencing & identification of language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing (= remnant of audio- lingual era) Fragmenting language skills runs counter to the parallel & interactive nature of language and language behaviour Must integrate language skills effective language teaching Knowledge & language ability are best developed when it is learned and used holistically
Macrostrategy 8: Promote Learner Autonomy Help learners learn how to learn Equip them with the means necessary to self-direct their learning Raise the consciousness of good language learners about the learning strategies they seem to possess intuitively Make the strategies are explicit & systematic so the strategies are available to other learners and improve their language learning
Macrostrategy 9: Raise Cultural Consciousness Culture teaching aims at helping the learners gain an understanding of the native speaker ’ s perspective. Both teachers & learners can be the cultural informants Enables ‘ cultural versatility ’ & raise learners ’ self-esteem
Macrostrategy 10: Ensure Social Relevance Learning/ teaching is not a discrete activity Embedded in the larger societal context Social context shapes learning / teaching issues including: - Motivation for L2 learning - The goal of L2 learning - The functions of L2 at home & community, etc - “ The learner is not becoming an imitation native speaker, but a person who can stand between the two languages, using both when appropriate. ”
Concept of CLT and Context Approach
Advantages of Postmethod Context Approach CLT ApproachContext Approach Complete answerConsideration of the whole context If we don ’ t have CLT, then we can ’ t learn a language. Methodology is just one factor in learning a language.
Advantages of Postmethod Context Approach CLT ApproachContext Approach No other factors count in learning a language – only teaching methodology. Other factors may be more important. If you don ’ t have CLT, then you are backward. Other methods and approaches may be equally valid.
Advantages of Postmethod Aspects of the Context Approach Individuals Classroom culture Local culture National culture
Advantages of Postmethod Aspects of the Context Approach Individuals - Personal difference - Learning styles - Learning Strategies - Personal motivation Classroom Culture - Group dynamics - Group motivation - Classroom environment - School environment Local Culture -Regional difference -Status of T and S in community -Attitude and behaviour of parents National Culture -Political context -Religious context -Social context -National environment
Requirements for Implementation of Postmethod Teachers constant self-reflections Teachers centrality in developing English language teaching Teachers education and development program
Forum Time (15 minutes) Do you think postmethod is feasible in your own classroom teaching? State your reasons.
Conclusion There is no single method that is the best for ELT Limitations of different methods postmethod 3P Particularity, possibility, practicality There are always alternatives instead of one single method