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VERTIGO Robert W. Jensen, M.D., J.D., F.C.L.M. Associate Professor

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Presentation on theme: "VERTIGO Robert W. Jensen, M.D., J.D., F.C.L.M. Associate Professor"— Presentation transcript:

1 VERTIGO Robert W. Jensen, M.D., J.D., F.C.L.M. Associate Professor
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology VERTIGO

2 What is vertigo? Hallucination (believed) or Illusion (disbelieved)
Self (or environmental) Movement Falling Spinning See-saw Drifting

3 What is NOT vertigo Beware the Trap ! Do not say “Dizzy.”
Lightheaded Nauseous Weak Anxious Diplopia Blurred vision Confused Fatigued Beware the Trap ! Do not say “Dizzy.” Dizzy can mean almost anything

4 The evaluation of dizziness often gets stuck in the mud and goes nowhere!
This is because we do not clearly describe exactly what is going on.

5 Important Points Does it come in Attacks or Spells?
Is it triggered by Movement, Bending, Tilting, Rolling over, Looking up? Which way does the visual world move? Is it better if you lie or sit perfectly still? If you don’t move, does it go away? Is there hearing loss? Ear Pain? Tinnitus? Do you feel faint? Are you nauseous?

Peripheral labyrinthine disease Vestibular nerve root disease Central vestibular disease Hypoglycemia Anxiety or Panic Hypo-perfusion Spinocerebellar degeneration Polyneuropathy or Autonomic Neuropathy

7 Starting at the beginning …
Labyrinthine ANATOMY

8 The bony labyrinth consists of inter-connecting caverns within the petrous portion of the temporal bone.

9 Perilymph = Low K (10 mEq) High Na (140 mEq) Within the bony labyrinth is the delicate membranous labyrinth “inner tube.” The membranous labyrinth fills only 25 to 45% of the bony canals. Outside the membranous labyrinth is perilymph fluid Inside the membranous labyrinth is endolymph fluid Endolymph = High K (144 mEq) Low Na (5 mEq)

10 The endolymph circulates freely throughout the entire labyrinth, including ALL the separate sense organs, including auditory (cochlea) and vestibular (semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule) components. Vestibular and hearing organs: Share the same bath water Are packed in the same suitcase

11 Semi-Circular Canals The canals contain fluid (called endolymph)
The canals contain a “wind-vane” called the “cupula” that occludes a swelling called the “Ampulla” Beneath the cupula is the Crista Ampularis that contains the vestibular nerve cells

12 Vestibular Nerve fibers
Cupula sits atop the Crista Ampullaris as a gelatinous mass that completely occludes the semi-circular canal at the Ampullary swelling KEY FACT: Specific gravity Cupula = Specific gravity Endolymph This is necessary for the correct calibration of the system. Crista Ampullaris Hair cell receptors Vestibular Nerve fibers

13 The Cupula extends across the Ampulla, anchored all around.
The Cupula deforms or “leans” as the inertia of endolymph presses against it. As the skull (with the canal Ampulla) moves, the endolymph inertia exerts a contrary force on the Cupula, bending it in the opposite direction of the head movement. The degree acceleration of head movement correlates the degree cupula deformation.

14 Because the cupula is attached to the canal wall all the way around, gravity has no effect on the cupula So the Semi-Circular Canals measure acceleration, NOT gravity or velocity Cupula Perilymph Crista Ampullaris Endolymph Vestibular nerve roots

15 Hair Cells in the Crista Ampullaris, below the Cupula, are the active sensory detector
The “hairs” project into the Cupula and move with the Cupula

16 The hair cells have hair-like projections.
The tall “hair” is the Kinocilium. The shorter “hairs” are the Stereocilia. The “hairs” are imbedded in the Cupula above. The cell bodies are in that Crista Ampullaris below.

17 The Stereocilia mount-up step-wise climbing towards the Kinocilium
Stereocilia get progressively longer the closer they approach the kinocilium – like a staircase. The Stereocilia mount-up step-wise climbing towards the Kinocilium The hair cells have a direction or polarity determined by the Kinocilium Hair cells have 50 to 100 stereocilia but only one kinocilium

18 Deflection of the stereocilia towards the Kinocilium excites (depolarizes) the Hair Cell, increasing the firing rate. GO STOP Deflection of the Stereocilia away from the Kinocilium inhibits (hyperpolarizes) the Hair Cell, reducing the firing rate Kinocilia all “point” in one direction. Kinocilia provide orientation.

19 If the Cupula bends toward the kinoclium, then the hair cell is excited (depolarized) and sends a nervous impulse (action potential) to the brainstem. If the Cupula bends away from the kinocilium , then the cell is inhibited (hyperpolarized)

20 - + Right head turn . . . Kinocilia point the same way in each ear.
Endolymph inertia bends stereocilia towards the kinocilia in the right labyrinth Endolymph inertia bends stereocilia away from the kinocilium in the left labyrinth - + Kinocilia point the same way in each ear.

21 The central “lake” or “pool” of the labyrinth is the Vestibule, from which we get the word “Vestibular” All of the Semi-Circular Canals drain to the Vestibule The Cochlea and Endolymphatic duct drain to the Vestibule. Vestibule

22 The Vestibule contains the Otolithic Organs called Utricle and Saccule to sense gravity and velocity
Semi-Circular Canal The Macula is the specialized sensory organ of the Utricle and Saccule The Macula is similar to the Crista Ampullaris. It contains Hair Cells Vestibule Utricle

23 The Otolith Organs contain “otoliths” or “otoconia”
Otoconia ride atop a gelatinous otolithic membrane in which hair cell stereocilia are imbedded, much like the Cupula of the semi-circular canals. The otoconia or otoliths are calcium carbonate crystals with specific gravity of 2.71

24 Otoconia Stereocilia in gelatinous membrane Hair Cells

25 Stereocilia are polarized toward a centromere or kinocilium basal body remnant
Utricle hair cells are polarized toward the macula mid-line or “striola” No Kinoclium Saccule hair cells are polarized away from the striola or macula mid-line

26 The Utricle is horizontal
The Saccule is vertical The Semi-Circular Canals are both vertical and horizontal

27 Contralateral Anterior and Posterior Canals are parallel
The Semi-Circular Canals are orthogonal at ~ 90 degrees form each other The anterior and posterior canals are 45 degrees lateral to “straight ahead” 45 The horizontal or lateral SCC tilts upward by about 30 degrees, so is horizontal when you are looking at your path. 90 45 Contralateral Anterior and Posterior Canals are parallel

28 Gravity pulls on the otoconia or otoliths.
Position changes the gravitational vector. This “drags” the macular membrane and deflects hair cell stereocilia. Otolithic Organs (Saccule and Utricle) detect this position change.

29 Gravity has no effect on the semi-circular canals
SCC detect angular acceleration alone. If there is no acceleration, then there is no response. The system comes to rest in 90 to 120 seconds.

30 Roll Plane Yaw Plane Pitch Plane Turning head to Nodding head
left or right “No” Pitch Plane Nodding head Forward or backward “Yes” Roll Plane Tilting head to shoulder

Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR) Adjust eye position for head position Keeps visual world from ”jumping.” Vestibular Spinal Reflexes Adjust body position for changes in gravity vector. Adjust center of gravity to avoid falling over.

DETECT AND MEASURE: Rotary Acceleration Velocity and Gravity ADJUST AND MODULATE: Eye position (stabilize vision) Body position (stabilize posture)

The presentation of the dizzy patient … CLINICAL VERTIGO SYNDROMES

34 How does vertigo arise? From eye movements! The vestibular system largely exists to adjust eye and body position to compensate for head position in space. When the eyes move, the visual world moves.

35 Clinical Vertigo Syndromes
PERIPHERAL CENTRAL BPPV Meniere’s Disease Perilymph Fistula Superior SCC Dehiscence Labyrinthitis AIED Vestibular neuritis Labyrinthine infarction Ototoxicity Mal Debarqment Syndrome CPA tumor Vestibular Paroxysmia Vestibular migraine Vertebrobasilar insufficiency Parenchymal Tumor Basilar meningoencephalitis Neurodegenerative disease Episodic Ataxia Hypoglycemia Drugs

Usually unilateral Usually Horizontal Nystagmus Obeys Alexander’s Law Slow CNS compensation Duration many weeks to months Non-positional No discrete attacks No hearing loss Cause Unknown Label for ignorance: An acute unilateral vestibular dysfunction without auditory or neurological signs.

37 “LABYRINTHITIS” Usually unilateral
Sometimes ear pain or aural fullness Usually variable, constant nystagmus No discrete “spells” or “attacks” Sometimes preceding respiratory illness Duration many days to several months Obeys Alexander’s law for nystagmus Cause: Unknown “Presumably viral” Label for ignorance: An acute unilateral vestibular dysfunction with some aural symptoms but no neurological signs.

Provoked by movement Latency of 5 seconds Duration of 30 to 90 seconds Usually Cyclorotary nystagmus Geotropic Nystagmus Risk factors = aging, trauma No auditory symptoms No neurological deficits Usually self-limited Usually Posterior SCC Sometimes multiple canals Cause : Overwhelmingly “Canalolithiasis;” Only very rarely “Cupulolithiasis”

Primary inflammatory disorder Asymmetric Progressive SNHL Either bilateral or unilateral, but usually bilateral Non-positional vertigo Progressive if not treated Meniere’s syndrome at times Periarteritis nodosa Wegener’s granulomatosis Bechet’s disease Ulcerative colitis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rheumatoid arthritis Cause: Presumably systemic rheumatologic inflammatory disease

40 Endolymphatic Hydrops
Minimal perilymph space MENIERE’S DISEASE Endolymphatic Hydrops Greatly Swollen Endolymph Space Often unilateral Duration days to weeks Tetrad: Fluctuating aural fullness Hissing tinnitus Low Frequency Hearing Loss Recurrent bouts of vertigo Up sloping audiogram Cause: Unknown -- - Meniere’s disease is an idiopathic wonderment Meniere’s symptoms can be associated with many different conditions

Abnormal “Leak” of Perilymph Bony labyrinth Round Window Oval Window Often Pressure Sensitive Often Sound Sensitive Usually Auditory Symptoms Tinnitus Aural fullness Non-Specific disequilibrium Occasional true vertigo Cause: Usually traumatic. Sometimes congenital. Caveat: Usually very difficult to either confirm or exclude

Drop Attacks. Patient remains awake Often sound induced Distortion of utricle or saccule membranes Sudden loss of postural tone from malfunction of vestibulospinal reflex Usually seen with Meniere’s disease Otolithic organs are central to gravity dependent tonic postural vestibulospinal reflexes.

TULIO PHENOMENON Otolithic Tulio Phenomenon = sound-induced paroxysms of OTR (ocular tilt reaction) with cyclorotary nystagmus, oscillopsia and, hence, vertigo. HENNEBERT’S SYMPTOM AND SIGN Pressure induced disequilibrium and vertigo (symptom) Pressure induced nystagmus (sign) Both are usually seen with perilymph fistula. Sometimes with Meniere’s disease, mastoiditis, labyrinthine trauma, congenital anomaly

Un-roofing of the bony labyrinth over the Superior Semi-Circular Canal Relatively “new” Strange Complaints Often “falling” sensation Triggered by Sound Pressure Sensitive Has diminished VEMP Surgical “Cure” Cause: Presumably Traumatic

Existence is controversial No clear anatomic pathway Associated neck pain , usually after whiplash or other injury Cervical-ocular reflex (normally minimal), may be exaggerated after neck injury Associated neck spasms and vague sense of disequilibrium or dizziness Cause: Unclear. Existence: Controversial.

46 VESTIBULAR OTOTOXINS Bilateral Vestibular Ototoxicity
Aminoglycoside antibiotics Loop diuretics (Lasix) Cancer Chemotherapeutics Aspirin Erythromycin Variable selectivity Usually hearing loss as well

Nystagmus = Oscillopsia: Seizure medications Lithium Toluene Alcoholism Wernicke’s syndrome Magnesium deficiency Vitamin B-12 deficiency

48 VESTIBULAR MIGRAINE Often no headache Non-positional
Continuous hours to days Gradual on-set / off-set “Drifting” “Floating” “Utterly Indescribable” Nausea Optokinetic Sensitivity Motion sickness history Descending Nucleus Caudalis of CN V

Neuro-vascular Cross- Compression Root-entry zone irritation Quasi-positional Mixture of central and peripheral Trial of Carbamazepine or the like Surgical “Cure” Seen in large number of asymptomatic people

Usually hearing loss and tinnitus Vertigo or Disequilibrium Occasional facial paresis or spasm Mixed Central / Peripheral Signs Root-Entry Zone Signs Vestibular Schwannoma Meningioma Bruns’ nystagmus = Gaze-evoked nystagmus Spontaneous nystagmus

51 Mal debarquement Syndrome
Central over-compensation Persistent “sea legs” on land Pathophysiology unclear Often middle aged women

STRUCTURAL LESIONS OF BRAINSTEM & CEREBELLUM Tumors Strokes Vascular Malformations Multiple Sclerosis Continuous (slowly changing) symptoms Associated neurological deficits Ataxia Dysphagia Facial palsy Hemiparesis Diplopia

53 STRUCTURAL LESIONS OF BRAINSTEM & CEREBELLUM Wallenberg Syndrome OTR Change in subjective vertical Disequilibrium Lateropulsion to the same side Crossed sensory signs Often minimal vertigo

STRUCTURAL LESIONS OF BRAINSTEM & CEREBELLUM Arnold Chiari Malformation Down beat nystagmus (worse on lateral gaze) Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) Divergence nystagmus and divergence insufficiency Horizontal gaze evoked nystagmus Convergence nystagmus Rebound nystagmus Positional nystagmus Impaired pursuit Saccadic dysmetria Skew deviation

55 STRUCTURAL LESIONS OF BRAINSTEM & CEREBELLUM Down Beat Nystagmus Localizes to Mollaret’s Usually lower in the region Up Beat Nystagmus Less localizing Usually higher in the region

56 Alexander’s Law VERTICAL NYSTAGMUS Important distinction :
“Up-Beat Nystagmus” is not “Upward Beating” Nystagmus “Up-Beat” Nystagmus “Down-Beat” Nystagmus “Upward beating” “Downward beating” Gaze evoked upward beating Up Beat Eccentric Position (gaze- evoked) Primary Position Alexander’s Law

57 SYSTEMIC DISORDERS and VERTIGO Behcet’s Disease Systemic vasculitis
Retinopathy Optic neuropathy SNHL Vestibulopathy Cogan’s Syndrome Interstitial Keratitis Binaural SNHL Vertigo Rapidly progressive Wegener’s Granulomatosis Erosive middle ear disease Erosive mastoiditis SNHL Optic neuropathy Rarely vertigo Susac’s Syndrome Retinal vasculitis Cochlear vasculopathy Labyrinthine vascuolpathy Encephalopathy Visual field defects

Episodic Ataxia Type I Ataxia & Myokymia Potassium Channel mutation Autosomal dominant, Chr. 12p Episodic ataxia (minutes) Kinesiogenic choreoathetosis No Vertigo, No Nystagmus Cerebellar dysfunction stable Young children Episodic Ataxia Type II Vertigo & Nystagmus Calcium Channel mutation Autosomal dominant, Chr. 19p Episodic ataxia & vertigo (hours to days) Progressive ataxia Adolescents to adults Other genetic Autosomal Dominant conditions: Familial episodic vertigo (without ataxia) Familial progressive bilateral vestibular failure Familial periodic ataxia and smooth pursuit failure

59 Paroxysmal OTR Rotation of the eyes to keep visual vertical aligned with vestibular (gravity) vertical Spells or repeated bouts of cyclorotary nystagmus may be perceived as vertigo Pathological variants Associated Skew deviation Ipsilateral hypotropia Ipsilateral head tilt

Motor “tic” of SO muscle Repeated short bouts High velocity intorsion Monocular Unique to SO muscle Cause unknown Triggered by activating the superior oblique muscle Very rapid 15 Hertz Fine oscillation 1-5 degrees Creates visual blurring or “Shimmer” Usually no vertigo because this is a monocular phenomenon

61 SEE-SAW NYSTAGMUS Lesion near the optic chiasm
-- often with bi-temporal hemianopia Suprasellar mass Head Trauma Third Ventricle mass Third Ventricle hemorrhage SEE-SAW NYSTAGMUS Cyclorotary nystagmus Conjugate rotation Intorting eye rises Extorting eye falls Less likely -- Rostral Mid- Brain Lesion (No field Cut) Congenital

Lateropulsion -- feeling “forced” in one direction. Usually cerebellar or vestibular nucleus lesion. Room tilt illusion -- Feeling the world is tilted. Results from mismatch of visual and vestibular coordinates. Brainstem or cortex. Room flip illusion – Feeling that the floor becomes the ceiling, and then suddenly is the floor again. Visual world Instantly “flips” 90 to 180 degrees Usually a cortical malfunction. Can occur with vestibular nuclear lesion

The evaluation begins with and depends upon the eye witness accounts The accounts do no good … ...if you do not listen to them

64 “Listen. Listen. Listen to the Patient
“Listen! Listen! Listen to the Patient. … He is telling you the diagnosis!” --- Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec, 1774

65 We think that we are better. We have technology.
Technology is a poor substitute for thought.

66 The key to success . . . Clear description Attentive listening
Careful examination Clear thought There is no easy way !

67 TREATMENT OF VERTIGO Repositioning Maneuvers Drugs Surgery
Physical Therapy Exercises Usually the ready application of the “Tincture of Time”

68 Questions ?

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