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Session 1 Peer Support Quiz. What is epidemiology?

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Presentation on theme: "Session 1 Peer Support Quiz. What is epidemiology?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Session 1 Peer Support Quiz

2 What is epidemiology?

3 The study of disease in populations

4 What are the walls of the inguinal canal?

5 Roof: Arching fibers of the transversus abdominus reinforced by the internal oblique Anterior: aponeurosis of the external oblique reinforced by the internal oblique Floor: inguinal ligament Posterior: conjoint tendon & transversalis fascia Remember – M A T L Remember – M A T L

6 What are the components of a nucleotide?

7 A base A sugar group A phosphate

8 What is the biopsychosocial model?

9 The biological, psychological and social aspects influencing an individuals health

10 What are the 4 P’s for increasing intra- abdominal pressure?

11 Peeing Passing stool Parturition Puking

12 Give the definition of prevalence

13 The number of people with a disease of interest in a defined population at a defined point in time

14 What are the the body points of attachment of the inguinal ligament?

15 ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) Public tubercle

16 What is an aponeurosis?

17 A sheet of connective tissue (rather than a cord) connecting muscles to the parts they move

18 Give three reasons why doctors should take account of patient’s perspectives

19 Better medical outcomes Aids diagnosis Increased patient satisfaction

20 What is a mesentery?

21 A double layer of peritoneum

22 What are the arteries supplying the foregut, midgut and hindgut?

23 Foregut: coeliac Midgut: superior mesenteric Hindgut: inferior mesenteric

24 What are the five Mendelian patterns of inheritance?

25 Autosomal dominant Autosomal recessive X-linked dominant X-linked recessive Y-linked

26 Which GI organ develops first?

27 The liver

28 What two types of clinical practice styles are there?

29 Doctor-centered Patient-centered

30 Give the definition of incidence

31 The number of new cases of a disease of interest in a defined population in a defined period of time Remember – prevalence considers both old and new cases

32 What is a dermatome?

33 An area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve

34 What is the dermatome supply of the following regions – epigastric, umbilicus and suprapubic?

35 Epigastric: T7 Umbilicus: T10 Suprapubic: L1

36 What are the different sugars found in DNA and RNA?

37 DNA: deoxyribose RNA: ribose

38 What are the three layers of the embryo from external to internal?

39 Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

40 From what layer does the gut tube develop?

41 Endoderm

42 Name the only monosomy disorder that is not lethal

43 Turners syndrome 45XO Monosomy is a chromosomal disorder where one chromosome of the pair is missing

44 Clinical decisions include what three considerations?

45 Clinical state and circumstances (of the patient) Patient preferences Research evidence

46 What is the common attachment of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?

47 The linea alba

48 From how many layers is the greater omentum formed?

49 Four Remember – the four layers fuse to form a two layered greater omentum

50 What is the function of the greater omentum?

51 The “policeman of the abdomen” – contains collections of macrophages, walls off areas of infection e.g. in appendicitis

52 What are the five factors required for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ?

53 A large population No migration in or out of the population Random mating No allele selection Constant mutation rate

54 Define confidence intervals

55 A measure of certainty which can be attached to the results With a 95% CI you are 95% sure the actual result is contained within the range of values calculated

56 Between which two muscle layers of the anterior abdominal wall do nerves run?

57 The internal oblique and the transversus abdominus

58 Which ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?

59 The falciform ligament

60 Define event rate

61 The number of people dying in a defined population in a defined period of time

62 What bases are in DNA and RNA?

63 DNA A (adenine) C (cytosine) G (guanine) T (thymine) RNA A (adenine) C (cytosine) G (guanine) U (uracil)

64 What are the coding and non-coding regions of genes?

65 Coding: extons Non-coding: introns Introns are removed by splicing

66 The lesser sac is found between which two organs?

67 The inferior border of the liver and the lesser curvature of the stomach

68 Name the opening to the lesser sac

69 The epiploic foramen or the foramen of Winslow

70 What do patients want from the consultation?

71 Doctors to listen and take account of their views, perspectives and expectations Active involvement in decisions about their care

72 Is mitochondrial inheritance maternal or paternal?

73 Maternal Remember – mitochondria in sperm are destroyed by the egg after fertilization so mitochondria are inherited from the mother

74 What is a Meckel’s diverticulum?

75 A remnant of the embryonic yolk sac

76 What is the rule of twos for the Meckel’s diverticulum

77 2% are symptomatic 2:1 males:females 2 feets from the ileocaecal valve 2 inches in length 2 years is the most common age of presentation

78 What is contained in the inguinal canal in males and in females?

79 Males: spermatic cord Females: round ligament

80 Does the rectus sheath split above or below the umbilicus?

81 Above Remember – it is easier to get a ‘six pack’ above the umbilicus because there are fewer layers of muscles lying over the rectus abdominus (the six pack muscle)

82 Describe the rotation of the stomach during embryonic development

83 90° to the right Remember – ‘I am right behind you’

84 From which embryonic layer does the anterior abdominal wall develop?

85 Mesoderm

86 Name the nine regions of the abdomen and the four planes

87 Regions L & R hypochondrium Epigastric L & R lumbar Umbilicus L & R iliac fossa Suprapubic Planes L & R midclavicular Transpyloric Transtubercular

88 Where in the cell does protein synthesis occur?

89 The ribosome

90 What are the boundaries of the foregut, midgut and hindgut?

91 Foregut: oesophagus – proximal ½ duodenum Midgut: distal ½ duodenum – proximal ⅔ transverse colon Hindgut: distal ⅓ transverse colon – proximal ½ rectum

92 State if the following structures are formed from ventral or dorsal mesentery – liver, spleen, pancreas

93 Liver: ventral mesentery Spleen: dorsal mesentery Pancreas: dorsal mesentery

94 What is a mosaicism?

95 The presence of two or more populations of cells in an individual who developed from a single fertilized egg

96 List four agents that cause DNA damage

97 Ionizing radiation and UV light Chemical Viral Spontaneous deamination

98 What are the spaces found lateral to the ascending and descending colon?

99 Paracolic gutters

100 List the organs that are intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal

101 Intraperitoneal Stomach 1 st part of duodenum Ileum Jejenum Caecum Appendix Transverse colon Sigmoid colon Upper ⅓ rectum Retroperitoneal 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th part of duodenum Ascending colon Descending colon Pancreas

102 List the layers of the abdominal wall

103 Skin Camper’s fascia (fatty) Scarper’s fascia (membranous) External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominus Transversalis fascia Extraperitoneal fascia Parietal peritoneum Skin Fascia Muscle Peritoneum

104 What are the four main muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?

105 External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominus Rectus abdominus

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