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Chronic Pelvic Pain UNC School of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship Case Based Seminar Series.

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Presentation on theme: "Chronic Pelvic Pain UNC School of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship Case Based Seminar Series."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chronic Pelvic Pain UNC School of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship Case Based Seminar Series

2 Objectives for Chronic Pelvic Pain  Define chronic pelvic pain  Cite the prevalence and common etiologies of chronic pelvic pain  Describe the symptoms and physical exam findings associated with chronic pelvic pain  Discuss the psychosocial issues associated with chronic pelvic pain  Discuss the steps in the evaluation and management options for chronic pelvic pain

3  Pelvic pain of more than 6 months duration that has a significant effect on daily function and quality of life  Includes reproductive and non-reproductive related pelvic pain that is primarily acyclic Definition

4  Overall 15-20% of women aged 18 to 50 yrs have chronic pelvic pain that lasts > 1 year  10-30% of gynecologic visits  12-19% of hysterectomies (~ 80,000/yr.)  30% of laparoscopy indications Prevalence

5  (Percentages vary widely depending on practice setting  No apparent pathology ~ 33%  Endometriosis ~ 33%  Adhesions or Chronic PID ~ 25%  Other causes ~ 9%  Gynecologic  Genitourinary  Gastrointestinal  Neuromuscular  Psychological Common Etiologies

6  Gynecologic  Endometriosis  Adhesions  Chronic PID  Ovarian remnant syndrome  Pelvic congestion syndrome  Recurrent hemorrhagic ovarian cysts  Myomata uteri (degenerating)  Uterine retroversion  Adenomyosis  Pelvic floor and hip muscle pain  Visceral hyperalgesia Etiology: Gynecologic

7  Genitourinary  Urinary retention  Urethral syndrome  Interstitial cystitis  Gastrointestinal  Penetrating neoplasms  Irritable bowel syndrome  Irritable bowel disease  Partial small bowel obstruction  Diverticulitis  Hernia Etiology: Non-Gynecologic

8  Neuromuscular  Nerve entrapment syndrome  Generalized myofascial pain syndrome  Fibromyalgia  Psychological  Depression  PTSD (history of abuse/trauma)  Anxiety disorders  Personality disorder Etiology: Non-Gynecologic

9  Dysmenorrhea  Pain lasting > 6 months  Impaired lifestyle  Dyspareunia  Pain during daily activities Symptoms

10  Characteristics of the pain:  Onset  Location  Duration  Radiation  Severity  Alleviating/aggravating factors  Relation to menstrual cycle  Cyclic vs. non-cyclic  Evolution over time  Responses to treatments Patient Evaluation: History

11  Psychological Evaluation  Use good clinical judgment in deciding when/if to ask about this!  History of traumatic event  History of abuse (emotional/physical/sexual)  Depression  Anxiety  Hypochondriasis  Secondary gain  Therapy/counseling about these events?  How much do they enter the patient’s thoughts on a daily basis? Patient Evaluation: Psychological

12 Physical exam Observe patient’s mobility as she gets up on the table. Palpate the entire back, but especially the paraspinous and SI joint areas – Referred pain? Then palpate abdomen

13  Abdominal exam  Listen for bowel sounds  Ask patient to point to exact location of pain, radiation, and grade its severity (scale of 0 to 10)  Ask the patient to map and demonstrate her tender area(s) by palpating with and without abdominal wall flexion  Palpate entire abdomen with a single digit, with and w/o abdominal wall flexion (Carnett sign)  Palpate from least painful area to most painful area  Referred pain? Patient Evaluation: Physical Exam

14  Evaluate for nerve entrapment  Trigger points  Ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves  Abdominal wall and back dermatomes  Mark “jump signs” (points of motion tenderness )  Straight leg raise Patient Evaluation: Physical Exam

15  Pelvic Exam: ask one question at a time  Vulva  General anatomy; educational exam as needed  Retract labia; walk posterior vestibule with cotton-tipped applicator in cases of dyspareunia or constant vulvar pain.  Vagina  Discharge  Epithelial quality, lesions  Cervix: Pap, cultures if indicated; Q-tip walk to evaluate sensitivity  Single digit exam: what hurts? (Order determined by history)  Cervix; motion tenderness  Bladder and urethra  Uterus, esp lower uterine segment  Adnexa  Levators, obturators, piriformi  Referral of pain? Similarity to chief complaint?: “Does this hurt? Is it like the pain you get? Does it travel anywhere?” Patient Evaluation: Physical Exam

16 Physical exam, continued Bimanual exam: size, shape, and mobility? – Start with non-tender areas first – Make two hands almost meet, sweep caudad – Communicate with patient throughout – Describe limits of exam due to habitus, guarding – Examine to “count of 3” if patient is too uncomfortable.

17  Pelvic Exam  Fixed retroverted uterus & uterosacral tenderness/nodularity  Endometriosis  Bilateral, tender, irregularly enlarged adnexal structures  Chronic salpingitis (PID)  Enlarged, tender, boggy uterus  Don’t forget the recto-vaginal examination!  Especially when history includes central pain, dyschezia, or dyspareunia.  To eliminate the recto-vaginal exam in such cases is malpractice. Patient Evaluation: Physical Exam

18  Laboratory  Complete blood count (CBC)  Elevated sedimentation rate (ESR) - nonspecific  Urinalysis (UA)  Urine pregnancy test (UPT)  Gonorrhea/Chlamydia  Testing  Transvaginal ultrasound (adnexal mass, uterine irregularity)  Abdominal and pelvic CT (bowel or urinary signs)  Diagnostic laparoscopy  Ultimate method of diagnosis for CPP of undetermined etiology Patient Evaluation: Further Studies

19  Laparoscopy (% vary widely in different practice settings)  Normal pelvis  Pelvic adhesions  Non-gyn disease  Endometriosis  Fibroids  Hernias Patient Evaluation: Further Studies

20  Make a list of contributing factors; involve family member or S.O. when possible.  Treat any underlying pathology, but don’t flog it to death.  Include treatment of contributing factors as a package deal  Establish a therapeutic, supportive, and sympathetic (but structured) physician-patient relationship  Schedule regular follow-up appointments  Patient should not be told to call ONLY if pain persists  Deters pain behavior and secondary gain Management

21  Educate, educate, educate  Reassure patient of no serious underlying pathology  Chronic v. acute pain  Educate patient to likely mechanisms of pain production  Central nervous system: centralization  Neuropathic  Muscular  Psychological (most often in reaction to pain events, not the primary etiology) Management

22 Treating multiple components of pain has been showed to be more effective than traditional gynecologic management. This can be accomplished in a single clinic, or through collaboration among several specialists, such as  Gynecologist  Physical therapist  + Anesthesiologist  + Acupuncturist  Psychologist  Sex therapist Management

23 Pharmacologic therapies:  Initial trial of hormonal manipulation  Cyclic therapy/regulation of menses  Suppress ovulation (OCP, DMPA and Lupron)  Suppress menses (DMPA, high dose intrauterine progestins)  NSAIDS  Analgesics  Nonnarcotic (ASA, Acetominophen)  Narcotic – use cautiously (tolerance, dependence)  SSRI’s or SNRI’s  TCA’s, anti-epileptics  Especially for pain with neuropathic components Management

24 Surgical therapies:  Guarded prognosis in patients with multiple pain syndromes  Degree of relief has uncertain relationship to amount of pathology; most can be done laparoscopically  Unilateral adnexectomy  Hysterectomy + BSO  Presacral neurectomy  Uterine suspension  Lysis of adhesions  Resection/ablation of endometriosis Anesthesia:  Acupuncture  Nerve blocks  Trigger point injections Management

25 Bottom Line Concepts  Chronic pelvic pain is pelvic pain of more than 6 months duration that has a significant effect on daily function and quality of life.  It affects 15-24% of American women in varying degrees of severity and accounts for a large portion of office visit and time.  Chronic pelvic pain is caused by a variety of factors including gynecologic, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, neuromuscular, and psychological.  Diagnostic laparoscopy is the ultimate method of diagnosis for patients with chronic pelvic pain of undetermined etiology.  Multidisciplinary approach has been shown to be more effective than pharmacologic or surgical therapy alone.  Even when etiology is determined, chronic pelvic pain can be difficult to treat and patients need to be seen regularly and provided much support.

26 References and Resources  APGO, Chronic Pelvic Pain: An Integrated Approach. APGO Educational Series on Women’s Heath Issues, APGO, Washington, DC, January  APGO Medical Student Educational Objectives, 9 th edition, (2009), Educational Topic 39 (p82-83).  Beckman & Ling: Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6th edition, (2010), Charles RB Beckmann, Frank W Ling, Barabara M Barzansky, William NP Herbert, Douglas W Laube, Roger P Smith. Chapter 30 (p ).  Hacker & Moore: Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5th edition (2009), Neville F Hacker, Joseph C Gambone, Calvin J Hobel. Chapter 21 (p ).  Katz: Comprehensive Gynecology, 5 th edition, (2007), Vern Katz, Gretchen Lentz, Rogerio Lobo, David Gershenson. Chapter 8.


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