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Published byYvette Dancy Modified about 1 year ago

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Visible “Tells”

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Scaling estimates wood volume after defects that result in loss of wood are removed Grading removes defects that could result in lower wood quality – clear cuttings

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The volume of a product before defect is removed (sound wood plus unsound wood) is called gross volume. The remaining volume after defect has been removed (sound wood only) is called net volume.

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1. Estimate gross volume 2. Estimate cull deduction and subtract from Gross volume to get Net volume 3. Estimate grade of net volume wood

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Veneer Factory Use (can cut into clear pieces, i.e for furniture) Construction Use Local Use (pallets, posts, etc.) Chips

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Bulge Bumps Burls Butt Scar Butt Swell Cankers Galls Lesions Conks Epicormic Branches Flanges Flutes Forks Gum Lesions Holes Knots Limbs Overgrowths Seams Splits Surface Rise Wounds

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Timber Cruising Handbook, Ch. 20, pg. 57 Timber Cruising Handbook Defects in Hardwood Timber Handbook good reference Defects in Hardwood Timber Handbook

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2.5 inches

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Bird peck (4+ callused)

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Residual from branch Concentric circles

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Overgrowths heavy (YP)

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Medium Light

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Light distortion – has normal bark patterning breaking through entirety of concentric rings Medium – normal patterning has invaded but not gone through concentric rings Heavy – concentric rings has totally interupted normal bark pattern

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heavy

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Starting with a 1’ stump Examine the 16’ log above the stump Allow.3’ for trim (4” – 2” on each end) So you are looking at the tree from 1-17.3’

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The grading face is the third best face or the second worst face

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Example of an F2 grade butt-log.

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Stoppers are occurrences in the tree that can not be productively sawn through and limit the length of a potential log section. Forks that are at least 1/3 diameter of main bole at point of occurrence and 45 degrees or less in angle from the main bole. Branches, stubs, remnant bumps. – ½ diameter of mainstem. Any embedded metal excluding aluminum. Sudden dramatic change in bole diameter

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Rot Catface or fire scar (missing wood) Sweep Crook Interior damage

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Within slab area = no deduction i.e. Sapsucker Damage for construction grade logs, etc.

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Extend the length affected an additional 2 feet above the last visible indicator. Pie cut fractions are used to determine deductions. Fractions used as 1/8, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, etc.

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USE STANDARD PIE CUT FRACTIONS SUCH AS 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 FOR CULL DEDUCTIONSWATCH FOR SPIRAL DAMAGE

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Different types of conks indicate different fungal infections. Some penetrate deeper than others which effects defect deduction. Must familiarize yourself with those in your area.

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