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Visible “Tells”.  Scaling estimates wood volume after defects that result in loss of wood are removed  Grading removes defects that could result in.

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Presentation on theme: "Visible “Tells”.  Scaling estimates wood volume after defects that result in loss of wood are removed  Grading removes defects that could result in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Visible “Tells”

2  Scaling estimates wood volume after defects that result in loss of wood are removed  Grading removes defects that could result in lower wood quality – clear cuttings

3  The volume of a product before defect is removed (sound wood plus unsound wood) is called gross volume.  The remaining volume after defect has been removed (sound wood only) is called net volume.

4 1. Estimate gross volume 2. Estimate cull deduction and subtract from Gross volume to get Net volume 3. Estimate grade of net volume wood

5  Veneer  Factory Use (can cut into clear pieces, i.e for furniture)  Construction Use  Local Use (pallets, posts, etc.)  Chips

6  Bulge  Bumps  Burls  Butt Scar  Butt Swell  Cankers  Galls  Lesions  Conks  Epicormic Branches  Flanges  Flutes  Forks  Gum Lesions  Holes  Knots  Limbs  Overgrowths  Seams  Splits  Surface Rise  Wounds

7  Timber Cruising Handbook, Ch. 20, pg. 57 Timber Cruising Handbook  Defects in Hardwood Timber Handbook good reference Defects in Hardwood Timber Handbook

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11 2.5 inches

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18 Bird peck (4+ callused)

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20  Residual from branch Concentric circles

21 Overgrowths heavy (YP)

22 Medium Light

23  Light distortion – has normal bark patterning breaking through entirety of concentric rings  Medium – normal patterning has invaded but not gone through concentric rings  Heavy – concentric rings has totally interupted normal bark pattern

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28 heavy

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31  Starting with a 1’ stump  Examine the 16’ log above the stump  Allow.3’ for trim (4” – 2” on each end)  So you are looking at the tree from ’

32 The grading face is the third best face or the second worst face

33 Example of an F2 grade butt-log.

34  Stoppers are occurrences in the tree that can not be productively sawn through and limit the length of a potential log section. Forks that are at least 1/3 diameter of main bole at point of occurrence and 45 degrees or less in angle from the main bole. Branches, stubs, remnant bumps. – ½ diameter of mainstem. Any embedded metal excluding aluminum. Sudden dramatic change in bole diameter

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37 Rot Catface or fire scar (missing wood) Sweep Crook Interior damage

38 Within slab area = no deduction i.e. Sapsucker Damage for construction grade logs, etc.

39  Extend the length affected an additional 2 feet above the last visible indicator.  Pie cut fractions are used to determine deductions. Fractions used as 1/8, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, etc.

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42 USE STANDARD PIE CUT FRACTIONS SUCH AS 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 FOR CULL DEDUCTIONSWATCH FOR SPIRAL DAMAGE

43  Different types of conks indicate different fungal infections. Some penetrate deeper than others which effects defect deduction. Must familiarize yourself with those in your area.

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