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Nucleosynthesis of the nuclides. Chart 12 C + 4 1 H  12 C + 3  + 2  + + 2 v 12 C + 1 H  13 N +  13 N  13 C +  + + v 13 C + 1 H  14 N +  14 N.

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Presentation on theme: "Nucleosynthesis of the nuclides. Chart 12 C + 4 1 H  12 C + 3  + 2  + + 2 v 12 C + 1 H  13 N +  13 N  13 C +  + + v 13 C + 1 H  14 N +  14 N."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nucleosynthesis of the nuclides

2 Chart

3 12 C H  12 C + 3  + 2  v 12 C + 1 H  13 N +  13 N  13 C +  + + v 13 C + 1 H  14 N +  14 N + 1 H  15 O +  15 O  15 N +  + + v 15 N + 1 H  12 C + 4 He 2 nd Generation Stars (Our Sun) Fusion by CNO reaction

4 Then by combustion of 16 O ( < 1 yr), a reaction that produces higher mass elements, including Si and Mg 16 O + 16 O  28 Si + 4 He +  12 C + 16 O  24 Mg + 4 He +  chart

5 Fusion is limited at mass 56 Fe by the diminishing return of energy of fusion and increased energy of nuclear bonds p = proton = u = E–27 kg n = neutron = u = E–27 kg u = 1 atomic mass unit = 1/12 12 C = E–27 kg Fe 30 = 26p + 30n A 56 Fe = 56 Mais le poid atomique de 56 Fe = (http://csnwww.in2p3.fr/AMDC/web/masseval.html) 26 x = u 30 x = u u – = u = E–27 kg = masse perdue Converti en énergie de liason nucléaire: E = mc 2

6 Energy of nuclear bonding maximum at 56 Fe beyond, fusion is an endothermic reaction nucleosynthesis beyond 56 Fe by neutron capture reactions and by fission of the nuclides with Z > 90 (uranium and the transuranics)

7 End as a red giant and a supernova

8 Supernova remnants Cas A in x-rays (Chandra) Vela SN1998bu Remnant of SN386, with central pulsar (Chandra) Cygnus Loop (HST): green=H, red=S +, blue=O ++

9 Nucleosynthsis in 2 nd generation stars: Inventory – 1 H, 4 He, 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, 36 Ar, 40 Ca, 44 Ca, 48 Ti, 52 Cr, 56 Fe Production of neutrons: 13 C + 4 He  16 O + n

10 Nucleosynthesis by neutron and proton capture Process S – slow neutron capture (2 nd generation stars) Production of elements up to Bi Process R – capture of fast neutrons (red giants) Production of heavy elements – to U. After is limited by fission Process P – proton capture ( 1 H) Production of nuclides poor in neutrons s

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13 The Stable Environmental Isotopes Isotope Ratio % natural Reference abundance 2 H 2 H/ 1 H 0.015VSMOW 3 He 3 He/ 4 He Atmospheric He 13 C 13 C/ 12 C1.11VPDB 15 N 15 N/ 14 N0.366AIR N 2 18 O 18 O/ 16 O0.204VSMOW, VPDB 34 S 34 S/ 32 S4.21CDT 37 Cl 37 Cl/ 35 Cl24.23SMOC

14 Routine and non-routine stable environmental isotopes

15 Delta - permil:  - ‰ ‰ VSMOW

16 What is the relative enrichment or depletion of 18 O in crustal rocks (~0.204%) relative to VSMOW = 17.4‰ VSMOW  crustal rocks are enriched in 18 O by 17.4‰ or 1.7% relative to the standard VSMOW

17 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

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19 Laser attenuation isotope analyser (Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy – WS-CRDS) Laser absorption Reads fraction of heavy isotope bonds Direct reading of BOTH 18 O and D ratios Do it in the field!

20 Los Gatos – the original black box Laser attenuation isotope analyser (Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy – WS-CRDS) and Picarro – nice small footprint

21 Laser attenuation isotope analyser (Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy – WS-CRDS) Check out the sample requirements – 2 mL. Fill a tray of 100! – lots of good data.

22 Distribution of isotopes in nature Isotope fractionation during reactionIsotope fractionation during reaction Rayleigh distillation during reservoir depletionRayleigh distillation during reservoir depletion

23 Isotope fractionation, 

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25 Physico-chemical fractionation

26 Isotope partitioning functions  = symmetry value m = mass of isotope E = the energy state summed from the zero-point to the energy of the dissociated molecule (J·mole –1 ) k = Boltzmann constant (gas constant per molecule) = n · · 10 –23 JK –1 T = thermodynamic temperature K

27 Diffusive fractionation v = molecular velocity (cm · s –1 ) k = Boltzmann constant (gas constant per molecule) = n · · 10 –23 JK –1 m = molecular mass (e.g · 10 –26 kg for 12 C 16 O 2 ) T = absolute temperature K

28 Diffusive Fractionation Diffusion in a vacuum Diffusion in air e.g. 13 C during CO 2 diffusion

29 Metabolic (biologic) Fractionation 13 C during photosynthesis sulphate reduction methanogenesis...

30 Units Isotope Enrichment  Isotope difference in permil units between two reacting phases at equilibrium when  is small, then we can use:

31 Units Isotope Separation  Isotope difference in permil units between any two phases

32 For a water – vapor exchange at 25°C what is the  18 O of vapor, where: water  18 O w = 0.0 ‰ VSMOW

33 For a water – vapor exchange at 25°C what is the  18 O of vapor, where: water  18 O w = 0.0 ‰ VSMOW The fractionation factor (  ) is:  18 O w-v = The isotopic enrichment (  ):  18 O w-v = (  –1) ·10 3 = 9.3‰ and  18 O v-w = – 9.3‰

34 For a water – vapor exchange at 25°C what is the  18 O of vapor, where: water  18 O w = 0.0 ‰ VSMOW  18 O w-v = (  –1) ·10 3 = 9.3‰  18 O vapor =  18 O water –  18 O water-vapor = 0.0 – 9.3‰ = – 9.3‰ vapor  18 O v = –9.30‰ VSMOW

35 For most reactions in hydrogeology:  values are typically –50 to +50 ‰  values are close to 1 (0.98 to 1.02)  values are typically –20 to +20 ‰ Except for some extreme reactions and light isotopes... e.g. hydrogen gas produced from water is strongly depleted in 2 H and has a fractionation factor    H 2O-H2 = 3.76 at 25°C. What will be the  2 H value for H 2 produced from water with  2 H H2O = –75‰ at 25°C?

36  2 H H2 = –754‰ VSMOW (but using ,  2 H H 2 = –75 – 2760 = –2835‰)

37 So, use the  simplification... when  is close to 1when  is close to 1 when the  -values are not too different from the reference (i.e. within a few tens of permil of 0)when the  -values are not too different from the reference (i.e. within a few tens of permil of 0)

38 Fractionation and Temperature ln  X-Y = aT –2 + bT –1 + c

39 Fractionation and Temperature

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41 Fractionation - Other Systems


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