Presentation on theme: "Detection of Most Distant Type-Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231 Satoshi Hamano (University."— Presentation transcript:
Detection of Most Distant Type-Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator: N. Kobayashi (Univ. of Tokyo), S. Kondo (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.), T. Tsujimoto (NAOJ), K. Okoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Science), T. Shigeyama (Univ. of Tokyo, RESCUE) Subaru NAOJ1
Table of Contents 1. Introduction ◦ QSO absorption-line systems ◦ Gravitationally lensed QSOs 2. Observation ◦ Target: B ◦ Observation with Subaru IRCS 3. Results & Discussion ◦ MgII absorption lines at z=3.54 ◦ The origin: type-Ia supernova remnant ? 4. Summary & Future Prospects ◦ Preliminary results of our recent observation using AO Subaru NAOJ2
1. Introduction Subaru NAOJ3
QSO absorption-line systems Subaru NAOJ “QSO absorption-line systems” are gas clouds that give rise to absorption lines in the spectrum of background quasars. They are an only tool that can trace high-z gas clouds without bias of luminosity. 4
MgII systems Doublet absorption lines of MgII ( λλ 2796, 2803) is the best lines to trace gas clouds associated with high-z galaxies. MgII systems can be detected in wide redshift range. MgII systems can trace various type of gas clouds in a wide range of HI column density.
Difficulty of “single” line of sight of QSO Observables from a set of absorption lines ◦ Column densities, temperature ◦ Chemical abundances, metalicity Non-observables because we observe them with just a single line of sight. ◦ Extent of gas clouds ◦ Mass, volume density The spatial structure of gas clouds is known to be one of a key parameters in galaxy formation theories. (Mo+99, Maller+04) Subaru NAOJ QSO Observer How large in size or mass ? 6
Lensing galaxy QSO Gas cloud observer “Multiple” lines of sight of gravitationally lensed QSOs Merits of gravitationally lensed QSOs (GLQSOs) Split of images ◦ We can observe multiple points of intervening gas clouds, which give us information of the spatial structure. Magnification of images ◦ We can resolve the structure of gas clouds in small scale even at high redshift Subaru NAOJ “Effective” spatial resolution reaches just １ mas ！ 7
Optical ← |MgII lines| → Near-infrared observer Spatial structure of MgII systems examined with GLQSOs Subaru NAOJ kpc-scale structure ・ distribution of metal in halos/disks ・ velocity field lensing galaxy QSO large separation Past studiesOur study Possible with near-infrared high- dispersion spectroscopy Kobayashi+ (02), Hamano+ (12) Molecular cloud scale structure Many studies have been done by high-dispersion observation with optical and UV spectroscopy Rauch+ (00,01,02),Ellison+ (04) Lopez+(97,05),Monier+ (97,09), etc.. lower-z small separation higher-z pc-scale structure ・ geometry, size ・ origin (HVC,SNR,HII region) Galactic scale structure MgI I CI V z~ 1 8 z=2.5
Our purpose In summary, our purpose is to investigate molecular clouds scale structure of high-z gas clouds traced by MgII systems at z>2.5 using multiple lines of sight of GLQSOs with near-infrared spectroscopy. In this talk, I will show you a first result of our on-going study of “GLQSO absorption-line systems” with Subaru IRCS. (Hamano+12) Subaru NAOJ9
2. Observation Subaru NAOJ10
Target B z=3.628 (Rauch+99) Four images and a lensing galaxy Have the 2 nd brightest luminosity in NIR among QSOs ever detected Known to have QSO absorption-line systems at z>2.5 (Rauch+99, 00, 01). Due to the configuration, a very large magnification can be achieved at higher redshift. This object is the most appropriate for our study. Closest images, A and B (AB=0.5 arcsec), are observed this time Subaru NAOJ Lensing galaxy (z = 0.339,Tonry 98) 0”.5 Slitviewer image of B obtained by Subaru IRCS w/ LGSAO188 11
Telescope Subaru telescope ◦ 8.2 m diameter ◦ Known to have excellent stellar images among ground-based telescopes → Best to resolve close lensed images of GLQSOs( ~ 0.5 arcsec) IRCS(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) ◦ We used NIR echelle mode (high spectral resolution) → MgII absorption lines at z>2.5 can be observed Subaru NAOJ IRCS Subaru telescope 12
Observation & Analysis Open-use observation by N.Kobayashi ◦ Wavelength : μ m (zJ & J bands) ◦ Date: Feb. 13, 2003 ( zJ ), Apr. 28, 2002 ( J ) ◦ AO36 was used only for zJ band observation. ◦ Resolution : R=5,000 ( zJ ), R=10,000 ( J ) ◦ Time : 9,000 sec ( zJ ), 9,600 sec ( J ) ◦ Seeing: 0.3 arcsec (excellent !!) ◦ Weather condition: photometric Data was reduced with IRAF Subaru NAOJ 0”.5 13 Photo of data PSF image Obtained data
3. Results & Discussion Subaru NAOJ14
Resolved spectra of B Spectra of images A and B of B Subaru NAOJ Telluric absorption lines z=3.54 MgII doublet MgII emission of QSO itself Very small separation between images A and B : AB = z=3.54 corresponds to １ mas z=3.54 FeII lines 15
Resolved spectra of B Absorption lines at z=3.54 MgII absorption lines ◦ Two components are detected with separation of ~ 200 km/s for both images. ◦ Differences of absorption lines can be seen between A and B for both components. FeII absorption lines ◦ Only one component of image A is detected with large Doppler width. MgI absorption lines ◦ No detection Subaru NAOJ16 These absorption lines reflect pc-scale gaseous structure at high redshift. Since now, we will discuss the structure and origin of the z=3.54 system. A B
A C CII Past study of the z=3.54 system Rauch+99 Optical obs. w/ Keck HIRES (R~45,000) ◦ Images A and C are observed ( z=3.54) ◦ 2 velocity components are detected with low-ionization absorption lines (CII, SiII, etc.) Symmetric profiles ◦ Unique feature ◦ Much difference of column densities between images A and C ◦ Velocities expand symmetrically from image A to image C Subaru NAOJ By what type of gas clouds are these unique profiles produced ? 17
A C CII Past study of the z=3.54 system Interpretation of the z=3.54 system by Rauch+99 Explanation of differences by a expanding shell. Limit the expanding velocity Subaru NAOJ A C B Newly observed Is spectrum of image B consistent with this model ? Outer shell produces stronger lines with smaller velocities Inner shell produces weaker lines with larger velocities 18 QSO observer
Our observation Subaru NAOJ A C B CII C A A,B ： MgII C ： CII MgII absorption lines in the spectrum of image B is found to have intermediate column densities and velocities of those of images A and C Our observation supports the expanding shell model proposed by Rauch+99, qualitatively. 19
3D spherically expanding shell model In order to constrain the size of the shell combining information from three images, we calculated a simple model of a 3-dimensional symmetric expanding shell with radius R and expanding velocity of v Subaru NAOJ Two geometrical equations on ⊿ OAB, OBC 8 equations 9 variables ： (Rauch+ 02) R(v) can be obtained 20
What is the z=3.54 system? (1) R-v relation of the z=3.54 system in comparison with Galactic objects having an expanding shell structure Subaru NAOJ (Koo+ 91) Consistent with SNR 21 Images must be located near the edge of the shell The diameter must be exactly equal to the separation A-C. Most likely!!
What is the z=3.54 system? (2) Estimate of fundamental parameters of the z=3.54 system Estimate mass of shell using the value of MgII column density Under the assumption that the z=3.54 system is a SNR, using sedov-phase solution, ◦ Age: ◦ Density of interstellar medium : ◦ Energy of supernova : Subaru NAOJ22 All of these parameters are consistent with typical values of Galactic SNRs (Koo+91), suggesting the z=3.54 system is truly a SNR.
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (1) Abundance ratio Comparison of [MgII/FeII] with low-z MgII systems (Narayanan+07) [MgII/FeII] of the z=3.54 system is near to those of Fe-rich systems Subaru NAOJ z=3.54 system MgII column density log[MgII/FeII] Low-z MgII systems solar ■ Confirmed Fe-rich systems FeII rich Type-Ia SN enrichment (Rigby+02) The z=3.54 system is a remnant produced by a type-Ia supernova 23
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (2) Gas kinematics Broad FeII absorption line ◦ b(FeII) = 23 ± 6 km/s ◦ b(MgII) = 9±1 km/s Subaru NAOJ Perturbed FeII-rich gas ejected by SN explosion. Conclusion: The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia SNR 24
4. Summary & Future Prospects Subaru NAOJ25
Summary We obtained spatially-resolved NIR spectra of images A and B of a GLQSO, B with Subaru IRCS. We detected MgII and FeII absorption lines at z=3.54 with systematical differences between images A and B, whose separation at the redshift is just an 8 pc. From expanding shell model, we concluded that the z=3.54 system is a type-Ia supernova remnant. It is the first case to identify the origin of a specific QSO absorption-line system. The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia supernova (remnant) ever detected (Most distant type-Ia supernova detected with light is at z=1.55: Conley+11) Subaru NAOJ26 See Hamano et al., (2012, ApJ, 754, 88) for the detail of this study.
Future plan ~ LGSAO188 ~ We are advancing the NIR survey of MgII systems in the spectra of GLQSOs with Subaru IRCS/LGSAO188. ◦ LGSAO188 enables us to obtain high-quality (higher spectral-, spatial-resolution, throughput) spectra of GLQSOs. More GLQSOs at z>2.5 can be observed w/ higher throughput of LGSAO188 for the first time. ◦ Improved stellar images increase flux in a slit ◦ We selected 7 brighter GLQSOs as a first sample and we are observing them Subaru NAOJ27 LGSAO188 with Subaru. (from NAOJ homepage)
Preliminary results 2 GLQSOs (including B ) have been already observed using guaranteed time of AO Subaru NAOJ28 Detected! Profiles are slightly resolved! Spectra of B obtained w/ IRCS/AO188 (NGS & LGS) Spectra obtained w/o AO (this study) As for the other observed object, we also detected some MgII systems with spatial structures. Analysis and observation are proceeding now! R=10,000 R=20,000