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Detection of Most Distant Type-Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231 Satoshi Hamano (University.

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Presentation on theme: "Detection of Most Distant Type-Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231 Satoshi Hamano (University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Detection of Most Distant Type-Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator: N. Kobayashi (Univ. of Tokyo), S. Kondo (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.), T. Tsujimoto (NAOJ), K. Okoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Science), T. Shigeyama (Univ. of Tokyo, RESCUE) Subaru NAOJ1

2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ◦ QSO absorption-line systems ◦ Gravitationally lensed QSOs 2. Observation ◦ Target: B ◦ Observation with Subaru IRCS 3. Results & Discussion ◦ MgII absorption lines at z=3.54 ◦ The origin: type-Ia supernova remnant ? 4. Summary & Future Prospects ◦ Preliminary results of our recent observation using AO Subaru NAOJ2

3 1. Introduction Subaru NAOJ3

4 QSO absorption-line systems Subaru NAOJ “QSO absorption-line systems” are gas clouds that give rise to absorption lines in the spectrum of background quasars. They are an only tool that can trace high-z gas clouds without bias of luminosity. 4

5 MgII systems Doublet absorption lines of MgII ( λλ 2796, 2803) is the best lines to trace gas clouds associated with high-z galaxies. MgII systems can be detected in wide redshift range. MgII systems can trace various type of gas clouds in a wide range of HI column density. 

6 Difficulty of “single” line of sight of QSO Observables from a set of absorption lines ◦ Column densities, temperature ◦ Chemical abundances, metalicity Non-observables because we observe them with just a single line of sight. ◦ Extent of gas clouds ◦ Mass, volume density The spatial structure of gas clouds is known to be one of a key parameters in galaxy formation theories. (Mo+99, Maller+04) Subaru NAOJ QSO Observer How large in size or mass ? 6

7 Lensing galaxy QSO Gas cloud observer “Multiple” lines of sight of gravitationally lensed QSOs Merits of gravitationally lensed QSOs (GLQSOs) Split of images ◦ We can observe multiple points of intervening gas clouds, which give us information of the spatial structure. Magnification of images ◦ We can resolve the structure of gas clouds in small scale even at high redshift Subaru NAOJ “Effective” spatial resolution reaches just 1 mas ! 7

8 Optical ← |MgII lines| → Near-infrared observer Spatial structure of MgII systems examined with GLQSOs Subaru NAOJ kpc-scale structure ・ distribution of metal in halos/disks ・ velocity field lensing galaxy QSO large separation Past studiesOur study Possible with near-infrared high- dispersion spectroscopy Kobayashi+ (02), Hamano+ (12) Molecular cloud scale structure Many studies have been done by high-dispersion observation with optical and UV spectroscopy Rauch+ (00,01,02),Ellison+ (04) Lopez+(97,05),Monier+ (97,09), etc.. lower-z small separation higher-z pc-scale structure ・ geometry, size ・ origin (HVC,SNR,HII region) Galactic scale structure MgI I CI V z~ 1 8 z=2.5

9 Our purpose In summary, our purpose is to investigate molecular clouds scale structure of high-z gas clouds traced by MgII systems at z>2.5 using multiple lines of sight of GLQSOs with near-infrared spectroscopy. In this talk, I will show you a first result of our on-going study of “GLQSO absorption-line systems” with Subaru IRCS. (Hamano+12) Subaru NAOJ9

10 2. Observation Subaru NAOJ10

11 Target B z=3.628 (Rauch+99) Four images and a lensing galaxy Have the 2 nd brightest luminosity in NIR among QSOs ever detected Known to have QSO absorption-line systems at z>2.5 (Rauch+99, 00, 01). Due to the configuration, a very large magnification can be achieved at higher redshift. This object is the most appropriate for our study. Closest images, A and B (AB=0.5 arcsec), are observed this time Subaru NAOJ Lensing galaxy (z = 0.339,Tonry 98) 0”.5 Slitviewer image of B obtained by Subaru IRCS w/ LGSAO188 11

12 Telescope Subaru telescope ◦ 8.2 m diameter ◦ Known to have excellent stellar images among ground-based telescopes → Best to resolve close lensed images of GLQSOs( ~ 0.5 arcsec) IRCS(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) ◦ We used NIR echelle mode (high spectral resolution) → MgII absorption lines at z>2.5 can be observed Subaru NAOJ IRCS Subaru telescope 12

13 Observation & Analysis Open-use observation by N.Kobayashi ◦ Wavelength : μ m (zJ & J bands) ◦ Date: Feb. 13, 2003 ( zJ ), Apr. 28, 2002 ( J ) ◦ AO36 was used only for zJ band observation. ◦ Resolution : R=5,000 ( zJ ), R=10,000 ( J ) ◦ Time : 9,000 sec ( zJ ), 9,600 sec ( J ) ◦ Seeing: 0.3 arcsec (excellent !!) ◦ Weather condition: photometric Data was reduced with IRAF Subaru NAOJ 0”.5 13 Photo of data PSF image Obtained data

14 3. Results & Discussion Subaru NAOJ14

15 Resolved spectra of B Spectra of images A and B of B Subaru NAOJ Telluric absorption lines z=3.54 MgII doublet MgII emission of QSO itself Very small separation between images A and B : AB = z=3.54 corresponds to 1 mas z=3.54 FeII lines 15

16 Resolved spectra of B Absorption lines at z=3.54 MgII absorption lines ◦ Two components are detected with separation of ~ 200 km/s for both images. ◦ Differences of absorption lines can be seen between A and B for both components. FeII absorption lines ◦ Only one component of image A is detected with large Doppler width. MgI absorption lines ◦ No detection Subaru NAOJ16 These absorption lines reflect pc-scale gaseous structure at high redshift. Since now, we will discuss the structure and origin of the z=3.54 system. A B

17 A C CII Past study of the z=3.54 system Rauch+99 Optical obs. w/ Keck HIRES (R~45,000) ◦ Images A and C are observed ( z=3.54) ◦ 2 velocity components are detected with low-ionization absorption lines (CII, SiII, etc.) Symmetric profiles ◦ Unique feature ◦ Much difference of column densities between images A and C ◦ Velocities expand symmetrically from image A to image C Subaru NAOJ By what type of gas clouds are these unique profiles produced ? 17

18 A C CII Past study of the z=3.54 system Interpretation of the z=3.54 system by Rauch+99 Explanation of differences by a expanding shell. Limit the expanding velocity Subaru NAOJ A C B Newly observed Is spectrum of image B consistent with this model ? Outer shell produces stronger lines with smaller velocities Inner shell produces weaker lines with larger velocities 18 QSO observer

19 Our observation Subaru NAOJ A C B CII C A A,B : MgII C : CII MgII absorption lines in the spectrum of image B is found to have intermediate column densities and velocities of those of images A and C Our observation supports the expanding shell model proposed by Rauch+99, qualitatively. 19

20 3D spherically expanding shell model In order to constrain the size of the shell combining information from three images, we calculated a simple model of a 3-dimensional symmetric expanding shell with radius R and expanding velocity of v Subaru NAOJ Two geometrical equations on ⊿ OAB, OBC 8 equations 9 variables : (Rauch+ 02) R(v) can be obtained 20

21 What is the z=3.54 system? (1) R-v relation of the z=3.54 system in comparison with Galactic objects having an expanding shell structure Subaru NAOJ (Koo+ 91) Consistent with SNR 21 Images must be located near the edge of the shell The diameter must be exactly equal to the separation A-C. Most likely!!

22 What is the z=3.54 system? (2) Estimate of fundamental parameters of the z=3.54 system Estimate mass of shell using the value of MgII column density Under the assumption that the z=3.54 system is a SNR, using sedov-phase solution, ◦ Age: ◦ Density of interstellar medium : ◦ Energy of supernova : Subaru NAOJ22 All of these parameters are consistent with typical values of Galactic SNRs (Koo+91), suggesting the z=3.54 system is truly a SNR.

23 Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (1) Abundance ratio Comparison of [MgII/FeII] with low-z MgII systems (Narayanan+07) [MgII/FeII] of the z=3.54 system is near to those of Fe-rich systems Subaru NAOJ z=3.54 system MgII column density log[MgII/FeII] Low-z MgII systems solar ■ Confirmed Fe-rich systems FeII rich Type-Ia SN enrichment (Rigby+02) The z=3.54 system is a remnant produced by a type-Ia supernova 23

24 Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (2) Gas kinematics Broad FeII absorption line ◦ b(FeII) = 23 ± 6 km/s ◦ b(MgII) = 9±1 km/s Subaru NAOJ Perturbed FeII-rich gas ejected by SN explosion. Conclusion: The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia SNR 24

25 4. Summary & Future Prospects Subaru NAOJ25

26 Summary We obtained spatially-resolved NIR spectra of images A and B of a GLQSO, B with Subaru IRCS. We detected MgII and FeII absorption lines at z=3.54 with systematical differences between images A and B, whose separation at the redshift is just an 8 pc. From expanding shell model, we concluded that the z=3.54 system is a type-Ia supernova remnant. It is the first case to identify the origin of a specific QSO absorption-line system. The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia supernova (remnant) ever detected (Most distant type-Ia supernova detected with light is at z=1.55: Conley+11) Subaru NAOJ26 See Hamano et al., (2012, ApJ, 754, 88) for the detail of this study.

27 Future plan ~ LGSAO188 ~ We are advancing the NIR survey of MgII systems in the spectra of GLQSOs with Subaru IRCS/LGSAO188. ◦ LGSAO188 enables us to obtain high-quality (higher spectral-, spatial-resolution, throughput) spectra of GLQSOs. More GLQSOs at z>2.5 can be observed w/ higher throughput of LGSAO188 for the first time. ◦ Improved stellar images increase flux in a slit ◦ We selected 7 brighter GLQSOs as a first sample and we are observing them Subaru NAOJ27 LGSAO188 with Subaru. (from NAOJ homepage)

28 Preliminary results 2 GLQSOs (including B ) have been already observed using guaranteed time of AO Subaru NAOJ28 Detected! Profiles are slightly resolved! Spectra of B obtained w/ IRCS/AO188 (NGS & LGS) Spectra obtained w/o AO (this study) As for the other observed object, we also detected some MgII systems with spatial structures. Analysis and observation are proceeding now! R=10,000 R=20,000

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