Presentation on theme: "“Ocean Drilling 101” and the JOI Learning “School of Rock” Guest Scientist Jill Weinberger Originally presented 29 Sep 2007."— Presentation transcript:
“Ocean Drilling 101” and the JOI Learning “School of Rock” Guest Scientist Jill Weinberger Originally presented 29 Sep 2007
During the International Geophysical Year 1957 - 58 The USSR launched Sputnik The USA launched Explorer 1 Van Allen and colleagues discovered the radiation belts that protect Earth Discoveries in the Arctic and Antarctic greatly expanded out knowledge of polar regions …and we knew almost nothing about the sea floor!
After World War II, we … used echo-sounding to begin mapping the ocean floors, but much was guesswork by Marie Tharp and colleagues began the first efforts to understand remnant magnetism of the sea floors, but only a very limited regions used piston cores and dredges to scrap up sediments from the top few meters
We didn’t even know if … Life could exist in the deepest parts of the ocean until after the bathyscaphe “Trieste” went to the bottom of the Marianna Trench in 1960 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathyscaphe_Trieste
We did know … how to drill for petroleum in shallow waters using oil industry technology aboard special ships President Kennedy pledged to put Americans on the Moon by the end of the decade So, if we could put a man on the Moon, why couldn’t we …
…create a way to drill through the ocean bottom? Project Mohole was created in 1958 as the Earth Science’s response to the Space Race.Project Mohole The original goal was to develop technology capable of drilling through the Mohorovicic Discontinuity to obtain samples from the Earth’s mantle. In 1966, Congress objected to the cost and ended the project before its objectives had been achieved.
But out of the remains came DSDP – the Deep Sea Drilling Project In 1967, the “Glomar Challenger” began its construction as the first drilling ship designed to explore the ocean floors Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) oversaw scientific operations http://iodp.tamu.edu/publicinfo/glomar_challenger.html
The “Glomar Challenger” produced impressive results from the start! DSDP Leg 1 Site 2 revealed the existience of underwater salt domes, still a major petroleum source DSDP Leg 3 drilled 17 holes at 10 different sites along a oceanic ridge between South America and Africa. The core samples retrieved provided definitive proof for continental drift and seafloor renewal at rift zones, as well as support for the new theory of Plate Tectonics.DSDP Leg 3
Bringing Historic Discoveries into the Classroom We’ll explore more about these discoveries during the Curriculum Development portion of this Workshop. JOI Learning also provides this activity at http://www.joiscience.org/files/activities/PlateT ectonics_DSDP3.pdf http://www.joiscience.org/files/activities/PlateT ectonics_DSDP3.pdf
Other early discoveries included… …how youthful the sea floors are compared with continents. No part of the ocean bottom is even 300 million years old, compared with rocks on land that date back to nearly 3,900 million years. DSDP confirmed that oceans are constantly being destroyed in subduction zones and created in divergence zones.
New improvements, new discoveries! DSDP ended in 1983, and was succeeded by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) From 1983 – 2003, ODP continued to expand international participation in ocean exploration, utilizing the Drilling Vessel “JOIDES Resolution” http://www.odplegacy.org/operations/ship.html
The ODP’s “Greatest Hits” fill at least two volumes… Greatest Hits Volume 1: 1985-1996 (PDF; 1.8 Mb)Greatest Hits Volume 1: 1985-1996 Greatest Hits Volume 2: 1997-2003 (PDF; 2.2 Mb)Greatest Hits Volume 2: 1997-2003 All ODP Greatest Hits abstracts are available at http://www.odplegacy.org/science_results/ highlights.html http://www.odplegacy.org/science_results/ highlights.html
For 20 years, the JR provided a unique platform to explore the deeps Facts about JR operations Virtual tour of the JR
What Made the JR So Efficient? Advanced systems Advanced systems to stay in one spot regardless of waves, currents, etc. Wide Variety of Coring Tools Advanced Piston Corer (APC): used in soft ooze and sedimentsAdvanced Piston Corer (APC): Rotary Core Barrel (RCB): used in medium to hard crystalline sedimentsRotary Core Barrel (RCB): Extended Core Barrel (XCB): used in firm sedimentsExtended Core Barrel (XCB): Advanced Diamond Core Barrel (ADCB): used in hard sedimentary or igneous formationsAdvanced Diamond Core Barrel (ADCB): Motor Driven Core Barrel (MDCB): Used in interbedded materials and hard fractured rockMotor Driven Core Barrel (MDCB) Pressure Core Sampler (PCS): used in sediments while maintaining in situ pressurePressure Core Sampler (PCS): Core Bits
Reentry Hardware Drill-In-Casing (DIC) System: used to drill in a short casing string simultaneously with the bit to support an unstable sediment zoneDrill-In-Casing (DIC) System: Free Fall Funnel (FFF): used to reenter a holeFree Fall Funnel (FFF): Hard Rock Base (HRB): Used to focus the direction of the drill bit into hard irregular seafloor surfacesHard Rock Base (HRB) Hard Rock Reentry System (HRRS): used to install casing with reentry capability on a sloping or rough hard rock seafloorHard Rock Reentry System (HRRS): Reentry Cone and Casing (RECC): used as a permanent seafloor installation (or legacy hole) able to support nested casing stringsReentry Cone and Casing (RECC):
Downhole Tools Important as retrieving cores might be, often recovery was incomplete, but vital information could still be obtained through use of a wide variety of Logging tools that were sent down into the hole.Logging tools The LDEO Borehole Research Group has long had main responsibility for this aspect of ODP discoveries.LDEO Borehole Research Group
What BRG Does The Borehole Research Group uses downhole geophysical measurements in a wide variety of scientific investigations including sea level variations, paleoceanography, flow of fluids through fractured rock, and thermal and mechanical properties of the ocean's igneous crust and the properties of natural gas hydrates. BRG is also actively involved in the development of new tools and techniques for acquiring and analyzing downhole data. https://webcenter.ldeo.columbia.edu/lamonturls.nsf/ByFacilitiesTitle?OpenView
BRG Education Projects Over the past few years, BRG scientists have provided educational programs to E2C and other groups. If you are interested, here is the link to these: http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/BRG/EDUCATION/ PROJECTS/index.html
Our Guest Scientist for this Workshop, Jill Weinberger, will discuss how she has used the JR, downhole technology, and her scientific training in her search to develop and answer questions no one has previously asked!
Viewing Jill’s Presentation If you are interested, you can view Jill’s presentation and learn more about her research and background through her LDEO web page: http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~jillw/ http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~jillw/
Before we hear from Jill, let’s learn a bit more about how a scientist gets on the JR It’s Not Easy! Any research proposals had to pass through a rigorous selection process that begins with a formal submission to the Science Advisory Structure. Science Advisory Structure All proposals had to meet exacting standards outlined in detailed protocols. It might take up to 2 – 3 years to get approval!
Co-Chief Scientists shared responsibility for putting together all pieces of the puzzle, including the scientific party, which usually was limited to 20 – 23. Scientists working on a variety of research questions competed for the few spaces available. Grad students vied for spots which could lead to dissertation topics. On rare occasions, places were available for very lucky “others,” including Teachers-at-Sea.Teachers-at-Sea Nothing would have succeeded with the 65 – 68 JR crew members!
Once a Leg was scheduled, very detailed planning occured over an 18-month span: Leg Planning 12–18 months precruise 9–12 months precruise 6–9 months precruise 3–6 months precruise 1–3 months precruise 2 weeks precruise 0 weeks precruise
Once a cruise finally began, everyone works very, very hard! Here are some links to slide shows that may give you some sense of the activities constantly aboard the ship: Cruise 210 photographs John Beck, the official JR photographer on many Legs, produced this Photo Gallery.Photo Gallery
ODP IODP Beginning in 2004, the next phase of ocean drilling began with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). IODP will use a variety of drilling platforms to explore: The deep biosphere and the subseafloor ocean; Environmental change, processes and effects; and Solid earth cycles and geodynamics.
Key to the IODP is the latest drilling vessel, Chikyu (“Earth”), Japan’s first major contribution to sea exploration. Chikyu
The Journey Continues With the Chikyu, a refitted JR, and smaller, mission-specific vessels, IODP is about to begin an ambitious series of expeditions.series of expeditions. Education in a wide variety of endeavors form a significant part of IODP efforts.IODP efforts Maybe there’s a cruise in your future?
JOI Learning Classroom activities and other educational resources have been produced by JOI Learning’s staff and teachers who have worked with them in School of Rock 2005 andSchool of Rock 2005 School of Rock 2007 Link to JOI Learning Curriculum MaterialsJOI Learning Curriculum Materials