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Skeletal System 10 11 Elephant Bird (Madagascar) ** Extinct 16 th Century.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System 10 11 Elephant Bird (Madagascar) ** Extinct 16 th Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Elephant Bird (Madagascar) ** Extinct 16 th Century

2 Skeletal System Sword-Billed Hummingbird (Bolivia) Extant

3 12 13 Skeleton Tissue: Bone Dead or Alive?

4 Bone Tissue: Osteoblasts

5 Bone Tissue: Osteoid (Collagen, Hydroxyapatite) Hydroxyapatite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) Lamella

6 Bone Tissue: Osteocytes Lacuna Osteocyte

7 Bone Tissue: Vascularization 5

8 Bone Tissue: Osteon Osteon: Functional Unit of Compact Bone

9 Bone Tissue: Osteoclasts

10 Bone Tissue Osteoblast Osteoid Collagen Hydroxyapatite Osteocytes Lacuna Lamella Haversian Canal Osteon Canaliculus Osteoclast

11 Fig. 4-4 in Podulka et al Skeletal System Function:

12

13 Fig in Podulka et al Function:

14 1

15 Major Themes in Avian Skeletons 1) 2) Pneumatic BonesRigidity

16 Mallard: 2.5 kgMink: 2.5 kg Fig. 4-3 in Podulka et al Light Skeletons

17 Pneumatic Bones Proctor and Lynch 1993 (p. 136)

18 Fig. 4-7 in Podulka et al Pneumatization (Passerine Chick) Pneumatized Bone

19 14 15 More PneumaticLess Pneumatic

20 Fig. 4-6 in Podulka et al Axial versus Appendicular Skeleton

21 Axial Skeleton: Skull Fig. 4-8 in Podulka et al (Cranium, Orbit, Ear Opening, Premaxilla, Dentary, Quadrate, Craniofacial Hinge)

22 Fig in Podulka et al Asymmetry of Ear Opening

23 Fig in Podulka et al Cranial Kinesis

24 Fig in Podulka et al Cranial Kinesis Articular

25 Axial Skeleton: Skull (Craniaofacial Hinge, Premaxilla, Dentary, Articular, Quadrate, Jugal Arch, Palatine)

26 Ichthyornis Axial Skeleton: Skull (Teeth?)

27 Axial Skeleton: Skull (Hyoid Apparatus: Tongue Bone + Hyoid Horns) Fig in Podulka et al. 2004

28 Axial Skeleton: Skull (Hyoid Apparatus) Fig in Podulka et al. 2004

29 Axial Skeleton: Skull Premaxilla Dentary Premaxillary Dentary Craniofacial Hinge Quadrate Articular Orbit Ear Opening Hyoid Apparatus Hyoid Horns Tongue Bone = Entoglossal Bone Occipital Condyle

30 Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae (Vertebral Regions)

31 Axial Skeleton: Cervical Vertebrae (Occipital Condyle, Atlas, Axis, Dens of Axis) Fig in Podulka et al. 2004

32 Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae (Cervical Vertebra) Fig in Podulka et al (Spinous Process, Centrum, Rib Remnant)

33 Axial Skeleton: Cervical Vertebrae 20 24

34 Axial Skeleton: Cervical Vertebrae Fig in Podulka et al (Heterocoelous Centrum Ends of Free Vertebrae)

35 Axial Skeleton: Thoracic Vertebrae Fig. 4-14b in Podulka et al (Free Thoracic Vertebra, Notarium, Rib Facets) ( Fused Spinous Processes, Rib Facets)

36 Fig in Podulka et al Axial Skeleton: Ribs (Vertebral Rib, Uncinate Process, Sternal Rib)

37 Axial Skeleton: Ribs (Fig. 4-14b in Podulka et al. 2004) (Vertebral Rib, Uncinate Process)

38 Axial Skeleton: Lower Vertebrae (Synsacrum = Lower Thoracic, All Lumbar and Sacral, Some Caudal) Fig. 4-6 in Podulka et al. 2004

39 Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae (Free Caudal Vertebra, Pygostyle) Fig. 4-6 in Podulka et al. 2004

40 Axial Skeleton (Vertebrae) Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral and Caudal Vertebra Atlas Axis Dens Rib Remnant Heterocoelus Centrum Ends Notarium Rib Facets Vertebral Rib Caudal Rib Uncinate Process Synsacrum Pygostyle

41 Appendicular Skeleton Wings Hind Limb Pectoral Girdle Sternum Pelvic Girdle

42 Axial Skeleton: Sternum (Sternum (Carina = Keel)) Fig in Podulka et al “Carinate”

43 Axial Skeleton: Sternum Fig in Podulka et al “Ratite”

44 Fig in Podulka et al Appendicular Skeleton: Wing Bones (Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpometacarpus, Phalange)

45 Appendicular Skeleton: Carpometacarpus Most Carpals + All Metacarpals

46 Appendicular Skeleton: Pectoral Girdle Fig in Podulka et al Scapulas Clavicles (Furcula) Coracoids Glenoid Fossa Foramen Triosseum

47 Fig in Podulka et al Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Golden Eagle “Free Floating” Pectoral Girdle Skeletal Attachment: Base of Coracoid, Sternum

48 Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis) Fig in Podulka et al Ischia fuse to Synsacrum to provide rigid support

49 Open Pelvis Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis) Golden Eagle

50 Appendicular Skeleton: Lower Leg (Femur, Tibiotarsus, Tarsometatarsus, Digits) (Fig in Podulka et al. 2004)

51 Appendicular Skeleton: Tibiotarsus Tibiotarsus = Tibia + Proximal Tarsal Bones

52 Tarsometatarsus = Proximal Tarsals + Metatarsals Appendicular Skeleton: Tibiotarsus

53 Appendicular Skeleton Sternum Carina Carinate Bird Ratite Bird Pectoral Girdle Scapulas Clavicles (= Furcula) Coracoids Glenoid Fossa Foramen Triosseum Humerus Ulna Radius Carpometacarpus Phalanges Pelvic Girdle Ilium Ischium Pubis Femur Tibiotarsus Tarsometatarsus Digits

54 1 Shared/StaticFiles/Photography/Images/POD/b/bird-egg sw.jpg CartilageandBone03_files/image004.jpg

55 CloseUp.jpg /18/loon_2.jpg animals/images/primary/boreal-owl.jpg 21

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