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Overview of Psychology Framework in Psychology Psychological Perspectives.

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1 Overview of Psychology Framework in Psychology Psychological Perspectives

2 “As long as our brain is a mystery, the universe – a reflection of the structure of the brain – will also be a mystery.” - Santiago Ramon y Cajal “There is no scientific study more vital to man than the study of his own brain. Our entire view of the universe depends on it.” - Francis H.C. Crick

3 Psychology's Big Debate Nature vs. Nurture Genetics Society Chemistry Observation Chemistry Observation BiologyParenting BiologyParenting

4 Enduring Issues in Psychology Person — Situation Heredity —Environment Stability — Change Diversity Mind — Body

5 Scientific Revolutions Copernican “Earth is not the center of the cosmos; it is just a spec of dust.” Darwinian “Far from being the pinnacle of creation we are actually a species of ape and derive from the same family as everything else.” Freudian “Even though we claim to be in complete control of ourselves, our behavior is actually governed by a cauldron of chemicals and psychological processes that we are completely unaware of.” DNA “Life is basically chemicals”

6 Scientific Revolutions Potential (greatest revolution) –Understanding the very brain itself. This will change our view of who we are and how we understand the cosmos. –This will bridge science and all other fields-theology, art, music, sociology, economics, government…etc. –Neuroecology or neurotheology for example.

7 What is Psychology? Discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. Psychology: (Greek) –Psyche (mind/soul) –Logia (study)

8 Areas by Profession

9 Hermann Ebbinghaus “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.” –Though psychology is relatively new as a formal academic discipline, scholars have pondered the questions that psychologists ask for thousands of years.

10 Beginnings Psychology gets its roots from physiology and philosophy. –Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Hippocrates among others. Pondered Questions: What is free will? How does the mind work? What is the relationship of people to their society?

11 Beginnings Continued John Lock: (18th Century) Knowledge depends upon the experience of the sense organs. –Tabula Rasa

12 Structuralism and Functionalism Two Great Schools Started by Two Great Minds: Versus

13 Structuralism: What is Consciousness? Principles Interprets sensations, images, and feelings. Introspection. Basic structures of mental life: –Perception, Sensation, Affection Success: Created a model for studying mental processes scientifically. Wilhem Wundt “Father of Psychology” Established the first psychology lab in Germany in 1879. (University of Leipzig) Problem: Can not be used to study children, animals, and disorders.

14 Functionalism: What is consciousness used for? Principle Influenced by Charles Darwin. How the mind functions aide in adaptation. Expanded psychology to include emotions and observable behavior. Initiated the psychological testing movement. William James/John Dewey G. Stanley Hall: (1883) First psychology lab in U.S. Johns Hopkins University

15 Europe vs. United States Early Dominant Schools after the death of Structuralism and Functionalism:  Europe: Gestalt Theory (Max Wertheimer) Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) “We must succumb to the will of an all powerful unconscious”  United States: Behaviorism (John B. Watson) “Humans are pawns of the environment”

16 Three Major Forces in Psychology Psychoanalysis: (First Force) Behaviorism: (Second Force) Humanism: (Third Force) (1950’s) Many psychologists believed that these more radical approaches were dehumanizing and thus created a more human condition oriented school. –“Humans are inherently good”

17 Seven Powerful Perspectives Five Main Modern AdditionsPrognosis Biological Sociocultural Biopsychosocial BehavioralEvolutionary Cognitive Humanistic Psychodynamic

18 Biological Perspective Methods Genetics Study biological processes in the brain. Localizing functions in specific areas in the brain. Other Names: Neuropsychological Physiological Neurological Theory How internal events interact with external events to produce perceptions, memories, and emotions. Major Theorists: Johannes Muller Karl Lashley David Hubel

19 Behavioral Perspective Methods Controlled laboratory settings ensuring all variables are accounted for. Conditioning Primarily uses an animal model to prove theories. Token Society Other Names: Learning Perspective Black-Box Psychology Theory How organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors. Major Theorists: Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Albert Bandura

20 Humanistic Perspective Methods Focuses on such issues as the self and self-actualization. Evaluates topics such as- health, hope, love, creativity, nature, being, becoming, individuality, and meaning. Montessori Schools. Practical Applications: Army “Be all you can be” Navy “Accelerate your live” Theory Humans are naturally good and naturally strive to be the best. Major Theorists: Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Rollo May

21 Cognitive Perspective Methods Memory, language, problem solving, volition, sensation, and perception. Interesting Note: Primarily created as an attack against learning theory because of its inability to prove language acquisition at a logical and acceptable level. Theory Examines how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel. Major Theorists: Jean Piaget Noam Chomsky

22 Psychodynamic Perspective Methods Dream analysis Psychoanalysis Analyze past experiences Other Names: Psychosexual Psychoanalytical (Practical) Psychosocial (Ericksonian) Theory Evaluates unconscious dynamics and internal conflicts regulate human behavior. Childhood experiences greatly influence human development. Major Theorists: Sigmund Freud Erick Erickson Carl Jung

23 Evolutionary Perspective Methods Naturalistic observation Cameras and recorders Comparison of behaviors across species Theory Chaotic environment desires tools and behaviors geared towards a dynamic accommodation process. Major Theorists: Konrad Lorenz Karl von Frisch Nikolas (Niko) Tinbergen Charles Darwin

24 Sociocultural Perspective Methods Analyze social settings and look for similarities in human behavior across cultures. Theory Evaluates social forces and how the social variables change behavior. Major Theorists: Phillip Zimbardo Stanley Milgram


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