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Chapter 14 Our Galaxy. 14.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our Goals for Learning What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Our Galaxy. 14.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our Goals for Learning What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Our Galaxy

2 14.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our Goals for Learning What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy?

3 What does our galaxy look like?

4 The Milky Way galaxy appears in our sky as a faint band of light

5 Dusty gas clouds obscure our view because they absorb visible light This is the interstellar medium that makes new star systems

6 All-Sky View

7 We see our galaxy edge-on Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters

8 If we could view the Milky Way from above the disk, we would see its spiral arms

9 How do stars orbit in our galaxy?

10 Stars in the disk all orbit in the same direction with a little up-and-down motion

11 Orbits of stars in the bulge and halo have random orientations

12

13 Thought Question Why do orbits of bulge stars bob up and down? A. They’re stuck to interstellar medium B. Gravity of disk stars pulls toward disk C. Halo stars knock them back into disk

14 Thought Question Why do orbits of bulge stars bob up and down? A. They’re stuck to interstellar medium B. Gravity of disk stars pulls toward disk C. Halo stars knock them back into disk

15 Sun’s orbital motion (radius and velocity) tells us mass within Sun’s orbit: 1.0 x M Sun

16 What have we learned? What does our galaxy look like? The Milky Way Galaxy consists of a thin disk about 100,000 light-years in diameter with a central bulge and a spherical region called the halo that surrounds the entire disk. The disk contains the gas and dust of the interstellar medium, while the halo contains very little gas.

17 What have we learned? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? Stars in the disk all orbit the galactic center in about the same plane and in the same direction. Halo and bulge stars also orbit the center of the galaxy, but their orbits are randomly inclined to the disk of the galaxy.

18 14.2 Galactic Recycling Our Goals for Learning How does our galaxy recycle gas into stars? Where do stars tend to form in our galaxy?

19 How does our galaxy recycle gas into stars?

20 Star-gas-star cycle Recycles gas from old stars into new star systems

21 High-mass stars have strong stellar winds that blow bubbles of hot gas

22 Lower mass stars return gas to interstellar space through stellar winds and planetary nebulae

23 X-rays from hot gas in supernova remnants reveal newly- made heavy elements

24 Supernova remnant cools and begins to emit visible light as it expands New elements made by supernova mix into interstellar medium

25 Multiple supernovae create huge hot bubbles that can blow out of disk Gas clouds cooling in the halo can rain back down on disk

26 Atomic hydrogen gas forms as hot gas cools, allowing electrons to join with protons Molecular clouds form next, after gas cools enough to allow to atoms to combine into molecules

27 Molecular clouds in Orion Composition: Mostly H 2 About 28% He About 1% CO Many other molecules

28 Gravity forms stars out of the gas in molecular clouds, completing the star-gas- star cycle

29 Radiation from newly formed stars is eroding these star- forming clouds

30 Summary of Galactic Recycling Stars make new elements by fusion Dying stars expel gas and new elements, producing hot bubbles (~10 6 K) Hot gas cools, allowing atomic hydrogen clouds to form (~100-10,000 K) Further cooling permits molecules to form, making molecular clouds (~30 K) Gravity forms new stars (and planets) in molecular clouds Gas Cools

31 Thought Question Where will the gas be in 1 trillion years? A. Blown out of galaxy B. Still recycling just like now C. Locked into white dwarfs and low-mass stars

32 Thought Question Where will the gas be in 1 trillion years? A. Blown out of galaxy B. Still recycling just like now C. Locked into white dwarfs and low-mass stars

33 We observe star-gas-star cycle operating in Milky Way’s disk using many different wavelengths of light

34 Infrared light reveals stars whose visible light is blocked by gas clouds Infrared Visible

35 X-rays are observed from hot gas above and below the Milky Way’s disk X-rays

36 21-cm radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen show where gas has cooled and settled into disk Radio (21cm)

37 Radio waves from carbon monoxide (CO) show locations of molecular clouds Radio (CO)

38 Long-wavelength infrared emission shows where young stars are heating dust grains IR (dust)

39 Gamma rays show where cosmic rays from supernovae collide with atomic nuclei in gas clouds

40 Where do stars tend to form in our galaxy?

41 Ionization nebulae are found around short-lived high-mass stars, signifying active star formation

42 Reflection nebulae scatter the light from stars Why do reflection nebulae look bluer than the nearby stars?

43 Reflection nebulae scatter the light from stars Why do reflection nebulae look bluer than the nearby stars? For the same reason that our sky is blue!

44 What kinds of nebulae do you see?

45 Disk: Ionization nebulae, blue stars  star formation Halo: No ionization nebulae, no blue stars  no star formation

46 Much of star formation in disk happens in spiral arms Whirlpool Galaxy

47 Much of star formation in disk happens in spiral arms Whirlpool Galaxy Ionization Nebulae Blue Stars Gas Clouds

48 Spiral arms are waves of star formation

49 1.Gas clouds get squeezed as they move into spiral arms 2.Squeezing of clouds triggers star formation 3.Young stars flow out of spiral arms

50 What have we learned? How does our galaxy recycle gas into stars? Stars are born from the gravitational collapse of gas clumps in molecular clouds. Near the ends of their lives, stars more massive than our Sun create elements heavier than hydrogen and helium and expel them into space via supernovae and stellar winds. The supernovae and winds create hot bubbles in the interstellar medium, but the gas within these bubbles gradually slows and cools as they expand. Eventually, this gas cools enough to collect into clouds of atomic hydrogen. Further cooling allows atoms of hydrogen and other elements to collect into molecules, producing molecular clouds.These molecular clouds then form stars, completing the star–gas–star cycle. Stacie Kent: Insert thumbnail of 14.8 Stacie Kent: Insert thumbnail of 14.8

51 What have we learned? Where do stars tend to form in our galaxy? Active star-forming regions, marked by the presence of hot, massive stars and ionization nebulae, are found preferentially in spiral arms. The spiral arms represent regions where a spiral density wave has caused gas clouds to crash into each other, thereby compressing them and making star formation more likely.

52 14.3 The History of the Milky Way Our Goals for Learning What clues to our galaxy’s history do halo stars hold? How did our galaxy form?

53 What clues to our galaxy’s history do halo stars hold?

54 Halo Stars: % heavy elements (O, Fe, …), only old stars Disk Stars: 2% heavy elements, stars of all ages

55 Halo Stars: % heavy elements (O, Fe, …), only old stars Disk Stars: 2% heavy elements, stars of all ages Halo stars formed first, then stopped

56 Halo Stars: % heavy elements (O, Fe, …), only old stars Disk Stars: 2% heavy elements, stars of all ages Halo stars formed first, then stopped Disk stars formed later, kept forming

57 How did our galaxy form?

58 Our galaxy probably formed from a giant gas cloud

59 Halo stars formed first as gravity caused cloud to contract

60 Remaining gas settled into spinning disk

61 Stars continuously form in disk as galaxy grows older

62 Warning: This model is oversimplified

63 Detailed studies: Halo stars formed in clumps that later merged

64 What have we learned? What clues to our galaxy’s history do halo stars hold? The halo generally contains only old, low-mass stars with a much smaller proportion of heavy elements than stars in the disk. Thus, halo stars must have formed early in the galaxy’s history, before the gas settled into a disk.

65 What have we learned? How did our galaxy form? The galaxy probably began as a huge blob of gas called a protogalactic cloud. Gravity caused the cloud to shrink in size, and conservation of angular momentum caused the gas to form the spinning disk of our galaxy. Stars in the halo formed before the gas finished collapsing into the disk.

66 14.4 The Mysterious Galactic Center Our Goals for Learning What lies in the center of our galaxy?

67

68 Galactic center in infrared light

69 Galactic center in radio

70 Strange radio sources in galactic center Galactic center in radio

71 Stars at galactic center Strange radio sources in galactic center

72 Stars appear to be orbiting something massive but invisible … a black hole? Orbits of stars indicate a mass of about 4 million M Sun

73 What have we learned? What lies in the center of our galaxy? Motions of stars near the center of our galaxy suggest that it contains a black hole about 3 to 4 million times as massive as the Sun. The black hole appears to be powering a bright source of radio emission known as Sgr A*.


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