Presentation on theme: "1 Romans Rom 11:1-10 Mar 11, 2012. 2 11:1 – A Question in Light of Rom 9-10. Related to opening statement of this section (chps 9-11) found in Rom 9:6a."— Presentation transcript:
2 11:1 – A Question in Light of Rom 9-10. Related to opening statement of this section (chps 9-11) found in Rom 9:6a. Does the apostasy of Israel mean God rejected them? Rom 11:1 “God has not rejected His people, has He?” Greek construction (μη w/ indicative) expects the negative answer; reinforced explicitly “My it never be,” “by no means.” Who are “His people”? “Israelite, descendant of Abraham” In Context of Rom 9-11 Paul is addressing the issue of the physical descendants of Abraham. In Context, what characterizes “His people”?
3 11:1 “His people” Most of the physical descendants of Abraham are characterized by unbelief, hardness of heart – Rom 10:21 Israel is “a disobedient and obstinate people” Note: Despite her unbelief, physical Israel nevertheless in some sense remains to be God’s people (“His people”). The sense in which unbelieving Israel is God’s people will be taken up later. For now, note context demands that “His people” = physical descendants of Abraham (Jews). “May it never be! For I too am an Israelite,...” Paul’s salvation is proof that God is still saving Jews, thus proof that God has not rejected “His people.”
4 11:2 “God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew.” “Foreknew” In what sense did God “foreknow” the Jews? The immediate context of Romans, together with the broader Old Testament context answers the question. In context of Romans, what is the opposite of “foreknew”? Hint: what has God not done?
5 In 11:2, the statement “God has not rejected... whom He foreknew” pits the two terms “rejected” and “foreknown” against each other, the two words are antonyms. In this context “foreknew” here has the idea of “selected,” or “chosen” with regard to Israel as “a people”. It is very important to let the context determine the meaning of the word. In other contexts the term “foreknow” means selected or chosen, with specific regard to one’s eternal destiny – see for example Rom 8:29-30. In the context of Rom 9-11 the selection or choice regards Israel as “a people,” a national, theocratic, entity.
6 The OT sheds much light on God foreknowing Israel. Amos 3:2 ESV, NIV, NASB, KJV. The term “know” clearly has understanding of “choose.” 1. Of all the other nations on earth, only Israel is known, that is “chosen” 2. But, being “chosen” (in this context) does NOT mean eternally destined to glory. 3. in fact, being “chosen” – in this instance – is the reason why God will do what?
7 Other OT passages regarding God’s choice of Israel. A small sampling: Gen 12:1-3; 18:17-19 (NASB, ESV footnote) Ex 19:4-6 Deut 4:37; 7:6-8; 10:15 In the OT context, God’s “choice” or “foreknowing” of Israel is in regard to her as a nation, through whom the promised Messiah would come, who would in turn bless all nations.
8 Back to Romans 11:1-2, God’s “people whom He foreknew” refers to the national election of Israel – not necessarily unto salvation. The context demands that Paul here be speaking of God’s election of the people as a whole. For it is this national entity whose status is called into question by what Paul has said in 9:30-10:21 and about whom Paul then asks in 11:1... In this verse Paul reflects the common OT and Jewish corporate sense of election, according to which God’s choosing of the nation Israel guarantees blessings and benefits (as well as responsibility, Amos 3:2) to the people as a whole but does not guarantee salvation for every single Israelite. (Moo)
9 11:2 “God has not rejected His people...” One more very illuminating OT passage should be noted here. Rom 11:2 seems to contain an allusion to 1 Sam 12:22. 1 Sam 8:4-7; 12:12-22 OT context Israel abandoned the theocratic rule of God Nevertheless, God will not abandon Israel Because God “has been pleased” to make a people – i.e. choice NT parallel Israel abandoned the theocratic rule of Christ Nevertheless, God is not abandoning Israel Because of God’s choice of His people
10 Rom 11:2-4 – Elijah’s Experience Paul refers to 1 Kings 19, Elijah’s experience in which he complains that he alone is left. God’s reply emphasizes that He Himself has “kept for Himself” 7,000 – otherwise known as “a remnant.”
11 Rom 11:5-6 “in the same way... at the present time.” Don’t miss Paul point here. While verse 5-6 DO refer to election unto salvation (including Paul), the point Paul is making is that the remnant (saved Jews) is proof that Israel as a whole has not been “rejected” – because if Israel as a whole was rejected there would be no remnant “at the present time.” The remnant “at the present time” harkens back to Rom 9 in which Paul demonstrated from the OT that there has always been a true (saved) Israel within physical Israel. “they are not all Israel who are descended from Israel” Rom 9:6
12 R0m 11:7-10 What was Israel seeking? (direct object is missing; complete from context) What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, attained righteousness, even the righteousness which is by faith; but Israel, pursuing a law of righteousness, did not arrive at that law. Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as though it were by works. (Rom 9:30-32) This allows us to fill in the missing object of 11:7. In context, Rom 11:5-7 clearly refers the “remnant” within national Israel (that is, vv.5-6 do not refer to Gentiles). Keep the broader context in mind – Rom 9:6a; this deals with national Israel.
13 Rom 11:7-10 V.7 makes the distinction between three groups, who are they? 1) “Israel” – that is, national Israel. 2) “elect” or “chosen” – those within national Israel who “obtained” it. (these are the remnant, by God’s gracious choice – v.5) 3) the “rest” or “the others” – those within national Israel who did not “obtain” it.
14 Rom 11:7-10 Paul cites OT demonstrating the fact that even from the beginning, God revealed what national Israel’s future would be. Deut 29:1 – 30:20 Dt 29:1-4. How does Paul describe this condition, what term? Dt 29:10-13. “covenant... establish you today as His people” Dt 29:14-15, 22. “those not here today... the generation to come” Dt 29:25. “they forsook the covenant” Dt 30:1-2 “when all of these things have come... you will return” Dt 30:6 “the LORD your God will circumcise your heart” All this speaks of national Israel as God’s “people” – whom He has not rejected (Rom 11:1 ff ).
15 Rom 11:1-10 summary Keep broader context in mind – Rom 9:6a. Rom chp 9-11 deals with physical (national) Israel, and how their apostasy does not mean that God is unfaithful to His promises. Big picture: Rom 11:1-10 shows that God has not rejected national Israel. Details / Supporting arguments: 1) National Israel is still “His people” whom God “foreknew.” In this context, God’s foreknowledge of Israel must be understood in the OT sense of His choice of Israel as the physical nation through whom Messiah would come.
16 Rom 11:1-10 summary Details / Supporting arguments: 2) Within national Israel there always has been and continues to be up to “the present time” (Rom 11:5) the remnant – that is, a small number of Jews who “obtain” righteousness by faith in Messiah Jesus (Rom 9:30-31). The Jewish remnant is strictly by God’s elective grace, not human effort (Rom 11:5-6). [Of course the same applies to Gentile believers, but that is not the context of Rom 11:1-10] 3) National Israel’s history, and the salvation of individual Jews from within national Israel, has been, and continues to be, the outworking of God’s sovereignty, which was revealed at the outset of her birth as a nation (Deut 29- 30).
18 “Romans’ Road” A simplified method of presenting the Gospel based entirely on verses from the book of Romans has been called Romans’ Road. This approach follows how Paul presented the Gospel in Romans: 1. Man’s Sin. 2. God’s Provision. 3. Man’ Response. Personalize each verse. As you use these verses, ask your friend to replace “all,” “whoever,” “us,” etc. with their own name.
19 “Romans’ Road” 1. Man’s Sin Rom 3:23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, Rom 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Use “but the free gift...” as a transition to 2. God’s provision.
20 “Romans’ Road” 2. God’s Provision. Rom 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Rom 5:8 But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Transition: What do you need to do?
21 “Romans’ Road” 3. Man’s Response. Rom 10:9 that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved; 10 for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation. Rom 10:13 for "WHOEVER WILL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED." Offer to lead in prayer.