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The Evolution of the 2007 Mid-Atlantic Cold Pool W. S. Brown University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth O. Schofield, S. Glenn, & J. Kohut Rutgers University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of the 2007 Mid-Atlantic Cold Pool W. S. Brown University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth O. Schofield, S. Glenn, & J. Kohut Rutgers University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution of the 2007 Mid-Atlantic Cold Pool W. S. Brown University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth O. Schofield, S. Glenn, & J. Kohut Rutgers University W. Boicourt University of Maryland at Horn Point AGU/ASLO/TOS 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting 26 February 2014 The Evolution of the 2007 Mid-Atlantic Cold Pool W. S. Brown University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth O. Schofield, S. Glenn, & J. Kohut Rutgers University W. Boicourt University of Maryland at Horn Point AGU/ASLO/TOS 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting 26 February 2014

2 Mid Atlantic Bight (MAB) COLD POOL Ou & Houghton, 1982NOAA/NMFS 1979 Survey Bottom Temperatures Remnant winter water … i solated by springtime surface warming/freshening ===> Cold Pool

3 Mid Atlantic Bight (MAB) COLD POOL Ou & Houghton, 1982NOAA/NMFS 1979 Survey Bottom Temperatures Remnant winter water … i solated by springtime surface warming/freshening ===> Cold Pool HISTORICAL EVIDENCE Cold Pool evolves in TIME-SPACE “cradle (May) to grave (October)”

4 Mid Atlantic Bight (MAB) COLD POOL Ou & Houghton, 1982NOAA/NMFS 1979 Survey Bottom Temperatures Remnant winter water … i solated by springtime surface warming/freshening ===> Cold Pool HISTORICAL EVIDENCE.. fed by cold water early summer “coldest patch”

5 Mid Atlantic Bight (MAB) COLD POOL Ou & Houghton, 1982NOAA/NMFS 1979 Survey Bottom Temperatures Remnant winter water … i solated by springtime surface warming/freshening ===> Cold Pool HISTORICAL EVIDENCE.. fed by cold water early summer.. warmed during summer

6 Mid Atlantic Bight (MAB) COLD POOL Ou & Houghton, 1982NOAA/NMFS 1979 Survey Bottom Temperatures Remnant winter water … i solated by springtime surface warming/freshening ===> Cold Pool HISTORICAL EVIDENCE Cold Pool evolves in TIME-SPACE.. fed by cold water early summer..warmed during summer..destroyed by autumn storms

7 During summer COLD POOL Water warms as it “moves down the shelf” (~ 5 km/day ) August 1979 bottom temperatures in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) (based on NMFS data by Ou & Houghton, 1982) COLD POOL minimum bottom temperature

8 COLD POOL SCIENCE QUESTIONS What is the relative importance of: along-shelf advection in the early summer “coldest patch” formation in the Cold Pool? the different mixing processes contributing to the summer warming of the Cold Pool? the different erosion processes contributing to the autumn demise of the Cold Pool? ocean and atmospheric factors causing the inter-annual variability of the Cold Pool?

9 THE DATA SET Rutgers U 2003 – present Glider Trajectory Composite transits repeat weekly cross-shelf zig-zag monthly along-shelf zig-zag monthly along-beach Glider Operations …cost-effective survey technology...virtually independent of weather..can be maintained at sea indefinitely Satellites can not “see” the COLD POOL alternative Opportunistic “slices “ with gliders

10 Tracking a Slocum Glider ….it takes a community … IOOS: MARACOOS Glider Technical Center..a distributed team of experienced glider experts SMAST/UMassD..a team of glider engineers/pilots ……a component of the Mid –Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System ……a component of NOAA’s Integrated Ocean Observing System

11 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ May-Jun 2007 COLD POOL Established Late Spring – cooling !

12 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Jul-Aug 2007 COLD POOL Summer - warming

13 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Sep – Oct 2007 COLD POOL 2007 Autumn - erosion

14 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ T min vs. Time Glider Transect T min “… a proxy for Cold Pool temperature “ AprJunAugOct

15 with TEMPERATURE DEPARTURES TD = T – T min TD statistics suggest TD < 4.3 o C (1 σ) DEFINING COLD POOL WATER – 2007 T min vs S min Diagram

16 DEFINING COLD POOL WATER – 2007 Cold Pool Water 2007 TD = T – T min < 4.3 o C 0.6 < S < 0.8 psu MAY-JUN o C 0.6 psu

17 DEFINING COLD POOL WATER – 2007 Cold Pool Water 2007 TD = T – T min < 4.3 o C 0.7 < S < 0.9 psu JUL-AUG

18 Looking for COLD POOL 2007 Boundaries May-Jun2007 COLD POOL - Spring ? Temperature Departures TD = T – T min < 4.3 o C

19 COLD POOL May-Jun 2007 COLD POOL Jul-Aug 2007 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “

20 COLD POOL Sep-Oct 2007 COLD POOL Oct 2007 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “

21 Mapping the September-October 2013 COLD POOL ….with MULTIPLE GLIDERS ……. Gliders + Data Assimilation Models

22 Mapping the COLD POOL ….with a pair of gliders 2 nd week of September 2013 The seaward edge of the COLD POOL !

23 ESPRESSO Bottom Temperature 27 May 2013 Wilkin et al., 2013 NEW DIRECTIONS: Glider Data Assimilation Modeling

24 SW CPW ALTERNATIVES ? (A) Local Mixing with SW (B) Remote Mixing with SW + Long Shelf Advection (C) Both FUTURE DIRECTIONS: CPW Origins ?

25 FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Ecosystem Variability ESPRESSO Bottom Temperature 27 May 2013

26 Summary Ocean Glider Fleet Measurements …. a cost-effective technology for REAL-TIME Cold Pool observation Real-time (“timely”) Maps of the Cold Pool.… require glider data –assimilation ocean modeling Forecasting MAB Cold Pool Disposition …. within reach

27 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ TD = T – T min SD = S – S min T and S Departure Statistics

28 How do ocean gliders work? Move laterally thru “change in buoyancy” “Saw-tooth” motion => 1 km per hour - Glide downward - Detect bottom ……….glide upward - Detect surface ……… glide downward Surface every 3 hours - GPS located - 2-way “conversations” with command center “via satellite” - Real-time data transmissions Measure Ocean Properties T, C(S), O 2, backscatter, fluorescence + … day alkaline battery lifetime => 600 km.  1 km  | | 100 m

29 Cold Water INFLOW to the Mid Atlantic Bight early summer Ramp et al. (1989) Gangopadhyay & Schmidt – model

30 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Mar -Apr 2007 PRE -COLD POOL Late Winter

31 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Apr-May 2007 PROTO -COLD POOL Early Spring - warming

32 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ May-Jun 2007 COLD POOL Established Late Spring – cooling !

33 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Sep – Oct 2007 COLD POOL 2007 Autumn - erosion

34 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Nov – Dec 2007 COLD POOL GONE! Winter

35 Slocum Ocean Glider

36 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Nov – Dec 2007 COLD POOL GONE! Winter

37 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Mar -Apr 2007 PRE -COLD POOL Late Winter

38 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ Apr-May 2007 PROTO -COLD POOL Early Spring - warming

39 Mapping the Autumn COLD POOL 2013 ….with gliders RU-22 RU-23 BLUE BLUE RU-23 RU-22

40 Mapping the 2007 Coastal Ocean ….with a ONE-GLIDER “Fleet “ T min - S min Diagram

41 Mapping the Autumn 2013 COLD POOL ….with a glider pair 2 nd week September 3 rd week BLUE RU-23

42 DOING BETTER with observations alone Mapping the COLD POOL ….with a pair of gliders 3 rd week of September 2013


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