2 The Earth’s magnetic field Magnetic field of the Earth measured at the surface comes from three sources:97-99% represents main field generated by dynamo action in the outer core. Main field varies significantly with time (secular variation means variations along geological time)1-2% represents external field generated in space in the magnetosphere. External field also varies on time scales of seconds to days.1-2% represents crustal field from remnant magnetization above the Curie depth.Ali K. Abdel Fattah
3 The Earth’s magnetic field The Earth’s magnetic field would be:vertical at the poleshorizontal at the equatorToday, the best-fit dipole is currently oriented 11.5° from the rotation axis of the geographic north pole, but this has varied with time.Ali K. Abdel Fattah
4 Describing the Earth’s magnetic field Declination (D)Inclination (I)Horizontal Intensity (H)Vertical Intensity (Z)North-South Intensity (X)East-West Intensity (Y)Total Intensity (B)XYAli K. Abdel Fattah
5 Describing the Earth’s magnetic field This first order simple model of the field allows to use the paleomagnetic observations to determine past plate motionsMagnetic potential is given byThe Earth’s best fit dipole moment (m) equals to 7.94x1022 Am2 in magnitudeMagnetic field is determined by the differentiating the magnetic potentialgiven the magnetic permeability of free space, μ0 = 4x10-7 kg m A-2 s-2Ali K. Abdel Fattah
6 Spherical polar coordinates Conversion from/spherical into Cartesian coordinates:Gradient operatorAli K. Abdel Fattah
7 Describing the Earth’s field If the Earth’s magnetic dipole moment is aligned along the z-axis:At a latitude of θ and longitude , Magnetic field in spherical polar coordinates can show three components:Radial Component Br,Southerly Component B, andEasterly Components BAli K. Abdel Fattah
8 Describing the Earth’s field For the best fit dipole, Three components are given byTotal field is given byAli K. Abdel Fattah
9 Describing the Earth’s field Then, the magmatic inclination (I) can be computed from the following equationAt the North Pole, θ = 90° which gives I = 90°At the Equator, θ = 0° which gives I = 0°Ali K. Abdel Fattah
10 Describing the Earth’s field Ali K. Abdel Fattah
11 Describing the Earth’s field Ali K. Abdel Fattah
12 Describing the Earth’s field The equation of the magnetic inclination is important because it allows use to use a measurement of inclination (I) to determine latitude (θ). This was once used by mariners, but is most important in paleomagnetism.A rock can record the magnetic field present when it crystallized (temperature fell below the Curie temperature).Thus we can find the latitude of a continent at some time in the past.This was the idea of Apparent Polar Wandering.
13 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism The magnetic behaviour of minerals is due to atoms behaving as small magnetic dipoles.If a uniform magnetic field (H) is applied to a mineral, there are two possible responses.Diamagnetic behaviourParamagnetic behaviour
14 Diamagnetic behaviour This effect arises from the orbital motion of electrons in atoms.The atom develops a magnetic field that is opposite direction to the applied magnetic fieldMagnetic susceptibility is negativeAll minerals diamagnetic but will be masked by paramagnetism
15 Paramagnetic behaviour This phenomena arises when the atoms have a net magnetic dipole moment due to unpaired electrons.The atoms align parallel to the applied magnetic field H and increase the local magnetic field.For paramagnetic materials Magnetic susceptibility is positive.Paramagnetic elements include iron, nickel and cobalt.
16 Rock magnetization and translation Geomagnetism (II)Rock magnetization and translation
17 Magnetizing Igneous Rocks Curie TemperatureTemperature above which a mineral cannot be permanently magnetizedspontaneous magnetization when temperature drops below Curie temperatureCurie DepthIs the depth at which magnetic behaviour ceases since temperature exceeds curie temprature. Thermal vibrations of atoms prevents domain formation.Blocking TemperatureTens degrees less than the Curie point for most mineralsTemperature below which the orientation of the rock’s magnetization cannot changemagnetization cannot change once below blocking temperatureBoth temperatures are much lower than that at which lavas crystallize.The magnetization becomes permanent some time after lavas solidify.This type of permanent residual magnetization is called thermoremanent magnetization (TRM); atoms align when molten and freezeThe magnetism of TRM is larger in magnitude than that induced in the basalt by the earth’s present field.
18 Magnetizing sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks can acquire magnetization in through:Depositional or detrital remanent magnetization (DRM); acquiring during the deposition of sedimentary rocks.Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM); acquiring after deposition during the chemical growth of iron oxide grains as the case in sandstones.Strength of DRM and CRM fields typically 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than TRM
19 Detrital remnant magnetization Detrital magnetization can produce a weak remnant magnetization in sedimentary grainsGrains being deposited contain some magnetite or other magnetic mineralsPreferred orientation as they are deposited
20 Chemical remnant magnetization Can occur during alterationExample from oil field in Gibson and Millegan (1988)
22 Calculating palaeomagnetic latitude (use of TMR)
23 ExampleA rock sample was found at latitude of 34°N. Remnant magnetization in the sample was found to have an inclination I = 40 ° from the horizontal. Was the rock magnetized at the location where it was sampled?
27 Magnetic stripes (Dating the oceans) Using magnetometer with overseas vesselMeasure the total field intensitySubtract regional valueProduce magnetic anomaly map
28 Magnetic stripes (Dating the oceans) Raff and Mason, 1961First magnetic field mapOff the western coast of North AmericaMagnetic anomaly mapTake total magnetic fieldintensity and subtract regionalaverageBlack Stripes: positive intensityWhite Stripes: negative intensityWhich is normal/reversed polarity?Coupled stripes with sea-floor spreading and magnetic pole reversals
29 Origin of Seafloor magnetic anomalies formed at mid-ocean ridges Important evidence to support the hypothesis of continental drift came from observations of magnetic fields measured by survey ships on profiles that crossed the world’s oceans.Basalt erupted and when cools it is permanently magnetized in direction of Earth’s magnetic field at that time.Sea floor spreading moves rocks away from ridge.Magnetic field reverses direction
30 Magnetic stripes anomalies Magnetic stripes anomalies are considered for two cases of magnetic stripes anomalies:High magnetic latitudeLow magnetic latitudeMagnetic stripes anomalies of high magnetic latitude are characterized by:Earth’s magnetic field is close to vertical.Remnant magnetization at the ridge is in the same direction as the Earth’s field.Positive magnetic anomaly at the ridge crestMagnetic stripes at High magnetic latitudes