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NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) Hard X-ray (5 - 80 keV) Small Explorer (SMEX) mission.

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Presentation on theme: "NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) Hard X-ray (5 - 80 keV) Small Explorer (SMEX) mission."— Presentation transcript:

1 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) Hard X-ray ( keV) Small Explorer (SMEX) mission Selected 11/2003 for a Phase A study Downselection 11/2005 Caltech, JPL, Columbia, LLNL, DSRI, UCSC, SLAC, Spectrum Astro

2 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum NuSTAR the first focusing mission above 10 keV brings unparalleled  sensitivity,  angular resolution, and  spectral resolution to the hard x-ray band and opens an entirely new region of the electromagnetic spectrum for sensitive study

3 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum NuSTAR has three primary science goals: NuSTAR will discover collapsed stars and black holes on all scales as a pathfinder for the Beyond Einstein missions Identify massive black holes in the NDWFS (wide - 9 deg 2 ) and GOODS (deep-500’ 2 ) survey fields Characterize compact stellar remnants near the Galactic center

4 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum NuSTAR will map the remnants of recent supernova explosions, testing theories of where the elements are born SN 1987A NuSTAR will measure and map the 44 Ti lines at 68 and 78 keV in historic remnants: Tycho, Kepler, Cas A and SN1987A

5 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum NuSTAR will explore the most extreme physical environments in the Universe, teaming with GLAST and Chandra to span the high- energy spectrum Example: GLAST’s measurements of Compton radiation in the blazar Markarian 501 are compromised without NuSTAR’s simultaneous measurements of the time variable synchrotron peak (SSC model is shown). Together, they strongly constrain physical models. NuSTAR will test our understanding of all types of black-hole powered active galaxies

6 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Other objectives: Study cosmic ray acceleration in young SNR Measure high-energy diffuse Galactic emission Detect hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters Map pulsar winds in the Crab Measure cyclotron lines in Her X-1 Unravel physics of GRBs through followup of Glast events Test models of Type 1a Sne

7 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Core collapse events SNe lightcurves powered by radioactive decay of elements produced in non-equilibrium conditions of explosion Following gamma-ray emission lines after core-collapse provides critical tests of explosion models - difficult in core- collapse events Imaging gamma-ray emisison in a young remnant, before they enter the Sedov phase also provides a detailed understanding of the explostion dynamics.

8 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum SN 1987A 44 Ti - (  = 85 yr) - produced near the mass cut during  -rich freeze-out Production and ejection very sensitive to explosion mechanism and ejecta dynamics. Believed to now power the 1987A lightcurve Gamma-ray lines at 68/78 keV, 1157 keV (detected by Comptel in Cas A Flux measurement: 44 Ti yield (inferred to be high in 1987a) Mapping remnants: measure global asymmetries, ejecta mixing from velocity measurements

9 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Remnant Age DistSize 67.9 keV flux (yr) (kpc)(‘) (x ph/cm 2 /s) SN 1987a Cas A Kepler (?) Tycho x5 9.2 Line flux sensitivity - ~2 x ph/cm 2 /s (10 6 s) Map 3 young remnants Measure asymmetry, velocity distribution Clumpyness Measure flux from SN1987a

10 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Type 1a Supernovae SNe 1a widely believed to result from thermonuclear incineration of an accreting C/O white dwarf. We don’t know: nature and evolution of the progenitor system mass of dwarf at ignition physics of subsequent nuclear burning reason for the (empirical) width-optical luminosity relation The lightcurve is believed to be powered by the decay of 56 Ni A SN 1a has never been observed in the X-ray/gamma-ray Observations of the time evolution of the 56 Ni line (158 keV) would provide important constraints on the explosion mechanism and dynamics

11 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Prompt Decay of 56 Ni i Type Ia SNe Evolution of the 56 Ni in Type Ia SNe is sensitive to the explosion mechanism and mixing. For example, Mch and sub-Mch models can be easily distinguished. NuSTAR can measure evolution of down-scattered HXR photons to Virgo.

12 NuSTAR CIT JPL Columbia LLNL DSRI UCSC SLAC Spectrum Ready The four NuSTAR telescopes have direct heritage to the completed HEFT flight optics. The 9m NuSTAR mast is a direct adaptation of the 60m mast successfully flown on SRTM. NuSTAR det- ector modules are the HEFT flight units. Based on the Spectrum Astro SA200-S bus, the NuSTAR spacecraft has extensive heritage. NuSTAR will be launched into an equatorial orbit from Kwajalein. Although it brings new capabilities to space, NuSTAR is solidly based on existing hardware developed in a 9 years in a NASA SR&T program


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