Presentation on theme: "Instrument Ground Training Module 3"— Presentation transcript:
1Instrument Ground Training Module 3 Randy Schoephoerster
2Agenda ADF (Today) VOR (Today and Wednesday) RMI (Wednesday) HIS (Wednesday)DME (Wednesday)
3CAUTION…………………..The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course.Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months FAA-G d
4CFR 61.65 (d) Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged:(1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and(2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument-airplane rating, and the instrument time includes:(i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and(ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor, that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves—(A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility;(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.
5ADF: Automatic Direction Finder NDB: Non-Directional Beacon 3.2 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)The ADF indicator always has its needle pointing toward the NDB station (nondirectional beacon, also known as a radio beacon).If the NDB is directly in front of the airplane, the needle will point straight up.If the NDB is directly off the right wing, i.e., 3 o'clock, the needle will point directly to the right.If the NDB is directly behind the aircraft, the needle will point straight down, etc.ADF: Automatic Direction FinderNDB: Non-Directional Beacon
6Relative bearing (RB) to the station is the number of degrees you would have to turn to the right to fly directly to the NDB.a. Relative bearing TO the station is shown by the head of the needle.1) In the figure below, the RB to the station is 220° (Heading of airplane is 50deg, needle pointing at 270deg).b. Relative bearing FROM the station is given by the tail of the needle.1) In the figure below, the RB from the station is 40° ( ) or (90-50).
8MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer 3. Magnetic bearing (MB) to the station is the actual heading you would have to fly to the station.If you turn right from your present heading to fly to the station, you are adding the number of degrees of turn to your heading.Thus, magnetic heading + relative bearing = magnetic bearing to the station, or MH + RB = MB (TO).For MB (FROM), subtract or add 180°.EXAMPLE: If the airplane shown above has an MH of 40° and an RB of 220°, the MB (TO) is 260° ( ). The MB (FROM) is 80° ( ).If MH and MB (TO) are known, use the formula: RB = MB (TO) - MH.1) Add or subtract 360° to obtain a figure between 0° and 360°, if needed.MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeerMH + RB = MB
9A fixed card ADF always shows 0° at the top. a. Thus, RB may be read directly from the card, and MB must be calculated using the formula above.If the MB is given, the MH may be calculated as follows: MB - RB = MH.5. A movable card ADF always shows magnetic heading (MH) at the top.a. Thus, MB (TO) may be read directly from the card under the head of the needle.b. MB (FROM) is indicated by the tail of the needle.RB may be calculated as follows: MB - MH = RB.6. When working ADF problems, it is often helpful to draw the information given (as on previous slide) to provide a picture of the airplane's position relative to the NDB station.
11MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
12MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
13MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
14MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
15MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
16MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
17MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
18MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
19MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
20MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO
21MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TOMH = 215RBto = 140= ?
22MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TOMH = 215RBto = 140= Magetic Bearing TO355 – 180 = MB FROM
23MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TOMH = 330RBto = 270= so we need a number between 0 and Subtract 600 – 360 = 240
24MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TOMH = 330RBto = 270We found Magnetic Bearing TO was 240 so we just need to subtract 180 so… 240 – 180 = 60
25MyHouse + youRBeer = MyBeer Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TOMH = 350RBto = 270= so we need a number between 0 and Subtract 620 – 360 = 260
263.4 VOR RECEIVER CHECK. (Required every 30 days for Part 91) The Airport/Facility Directory provides a listing of available VOR receiver ground checkpoints and VOTs (VOR receiver test facilities).Maximum error for Ground Checks is 4° of the designated radial.2. Over airborne checkpoints designated by the FAA, the maximum permissible bearing error for the VOR receiver is plus or minus 6° of the designated radial.a. An alternative to a certified airborne checkpoint is a prominent ground reference point that is more than 20 NM from a VOR station that is along an established VOR airway.Once over this point with the CDI needle centered, the OBS should indicate plus or minus 6° of the published radial.3. The maximum difference between two indicators of a dual VOR system is 4° between the two indicated bearings to the VOR.a. The CDI needles should be centered and the indicated bearings checked rather than setting to identical radials and looking at the CDI needles.
274. VOTs are available at a specified frequency at certain airports 4. VOTs are available at a specified frequency at certain airports. The facility permits you to check the accuracy of your VOR receiver while you are on the ground.a. The VOT transmits only the 360° radial in all directions.b. Tune the VOR receiver to the specified frequency, and turn the OBS (omnibearingselector) to select an omnibearing course of either 0° or 180°.The CDI needle should be centered; if not, then center the needle.If 0°, the TO/FROM indicator should indicate FROM.If 180°, the TO/FROM indicator should indicate TO.The maximum error is plus or minus 4°.When using an RMI, the head of the needle will indicate 180°.5. When making a VOR receiver check with your airplane located on the designated ground checkpoint, the designated radial should be set on the OBS.a. The CDI must center within plus or minus 4° of that radial with a FROM indication.Cessna 182180 degs TO
28VOR Accuracy Checks Every 90 days Error AllowedNotesDual VOR+/-4degSingle VOR in the Air+/-6degVOR Ground CheckSet the radial as indicatedVOT Ground CheckRem 182180degs TO
29CDI: Course Deviation Indicator 3.5 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE (VOR) STATIONWhen VORs are undergoing maintenance, the coded and/or voice identification is not broadcast from the VOR.2. DME/TACAN coded identification is transmitted one time for each three or four times the VOR identification is transmitted.If the VOR is out of service, the DME identification will be transmitted about once every 30 seconds at 1350 Hz.3. A full-scale (from the center position to either side of the dial) deflection of a VOR CDI indicates a 10° deviation from the course centerline.a. About 10° to 12° of change of the OBS setting should deflect the CDI from the center to the last dot.CDI: Course Deviation IndicatorOBS: Omni Bearing Selector
304. An (H) Class VORTAC facility has a range of 40 NM from 1,000 ft 4. An (H) Class VORTAC facility has a range of 40 NM from 1,000 ft. AGL to 14,500 ft. AGL, and a range of 100 NM from 14,500 ft. AGL to 18,000 ft.a. To use (H) Class VORTAC facilities to define a direct route of flight at 17,000 ft. MSL, the facilities should be no farther apart than 200 NM.Generally, for IFR operation off of established airways below 18,000 ft., VOR navigational aids should be no more than 80 NM apart.5. VOR station passage is indicated by a complete reversal of the TO/FROM indicator.If after station passage the CDI shows a 1/2-scale deflection and remains constant for a period of time, you are flying away from the selected radial.6. Airplane displacement from a course is approximately 200 ft. per dot per NM on VORs.a. At 30 NM out, one dot is 1 NM displacement; two dots, 2 NM.b. At 60 NM out, one dot is 2 NM displacement; two dots, 4 NM.