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**11-1/11-2: Pressure and Floating & Sinking**

How can you predict if an object will sink or float in a fluid?

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**Why do some things float while others sink?**

Anticipatory Set Why do some things float while others sink?

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California Standards Science Standard 8.8.d: Students know how to predict whether an object will float or sink. Science Standard 8.9.f: Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the to remaining terms. Science Standard 8.8.c: Students know the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced.

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Input pressure: equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted (Pressure = Force ÷ Area). pascal: the unit of pressure (Pa), named for Blaise Pascal. fluid: a material that can easily flow. barometer: an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

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**Input density: mass per unit volume (Density = Mass ÷ Volume).**

buoyant force: the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object. Archimedes’ principle: the buoyant force acting on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by the object.

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**Input & Modeling What is Pressure?**

The amount of pressure you exert depends on the area over which you exert a force.

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Input & Modeling Area The area of a surface is the number of square units that it covers. To find the area of a rectangle, multiple the length by the width.

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Modeling Practice Problem Which has a greater area: a rectangle that is 4 cm X 20 cm or a square that is 10 cm X 10 cm? The square has the greater area. 4 cm X 20 cm = 80 cm2 10 cm X 10 cm = 100 cm2

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**Input & Modeling Calculating Pressure Pressure = Force ÷ Area**

Pressure is measured in an SI unit called a pascal (Pa): 1N/square meter = 1 Pa. Example: Calculate the pressure produced by a force of 800 N acting on an area of 2.0 square meters. P = F ÷ A P= (800N) ÷ (2.0 meters2) P = 400 N ÷ meters2 P = 400 Pa

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**Input & Modeling Calculating Pressure**

The SI unit for pressure, the pascal, is named for French mathematician Blaise Pascal. The SI unit for force, the newton, is named for English physicist Sir Isaac Newton.

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Modeling Calculate the pressure produced by a force of 450 N on an area of 3 square meters. P = F/A P = (450 N) / (3 square meters) P = 150 N / square meter P = 150 Pa What is the pressure on 2.5 by 3 meter area being acted upon by a force of 6000 N? P = 6000 N / (2.5)(3) square meters P = 6000 N / 7.5 square meters P = 800 Pa

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**Calculating Force from Pressure**

Input & Modeling Calculating Force from Pressure Example: The pressure of a gas contained in a cylinder with a movable piston is 300 Pa. The area of the piston is 0.5 square meters. Calculate the force that is exerted on the piston. F = P x A F = (300 Pa) x 0.5 m2 F = 150 N

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Modeling The pressure of a gas contained in a cylinder with a movable piston is 700 Pa. The area of the piston is 0.2 square meters. What is the force that is exerted on the piston? F = P x A F = (700 Pa) (0.2 square meters) F = 140 N

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**Input & Modeling Fluid Pressure**

All of the forces exerted by the individual particles in a fluid combine to make up the pressure exerted by the fluid.

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**Input & Modeling Fluid Pressure Air pressure**

Air is a mixture of gases that make up Earth's atmosphere. These gases press down on everything on Earth’s surface. Air exerts pressure because it has mass. Balanced pressure Balanced pressure explains why the tremendous air pressure pushing on you from all sides does not crush you. Pressure from fluids inside your body balance the air pressure outside your body.

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**Input & Modeling Fluid Pressure**

Atmospheric pressure decreases as your elevation increases. You measure atmospheric pressure with an instrument called a barometer. Water pressure increases as depth increases.

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**Variations in Fluid Pressure**

Input & Modeling Variations in Fluid Pressure As your elevation increases, atmospheric pressure decreases.

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**Variations in Fluid Pressure**

Input & Modeling Variations in Fluid Pressure Water pressure increases as depth increases.

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**Input & Modeling Density**

Changes in density cause a submarine to dive rise, or float.

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**Input & Modeling Density**

Changes in density cause a submarine to dive rise, or float.

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**Input & Modeling Density**

Changes in density cause a submarine to dive rise, or float.

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**Input & Modeling Buoyancy**

The pressure on the bottom of a submerged object is greater than the pressure on the top. The result is a net force in the upward direction.

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**Input & Modeling Buoyancy**

The buoyant force works opposite the weight of an object.

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**Input & Modeling Buoyancy**

Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant force acting on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces.

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**Input & Modeling Buoyancy**

A solid block of steel sinks in water. A steel ship with the same weight floats on the surface.

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**Input & Modeling Calculating Density D = M ÷ V D = (24 g) ÷ (16 mL)**

Density = Mass ÷ Volume The density of a substance is its mass per unit of volume. Example: A sample of liquid has a mass of 24 g and a volume of 16 mL. What is the density? D = M ÷ V D = (24 g) ÷ (16 mL) D = 1.5 g/mL

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Modeling A piece of metal has a mass of 43.5 g and a volume of 15 cm3. What is its density? D = M ÷ V D = (43.5 g) ÷ (15 cm3) D = 2.9 g/cm3

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Modeling A block has a mass of 320 g and a volume of 80 cubic centimeters. What is its density? D = 4 g/cm3 An orange has a mass of 250 g and a volume of 750 mL. What is its density? D = .33 g/mL

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C4U Quick Quiz PPT Get out your whiteboard and marker!

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**HOMEWORK CONNECTION Read pages 416-429 in your Science textbook.**

Complete the Section 11-1 & 11-2 Review & Reinforce Write a detailed SUMMARY of the section and complete the UNANSWERED QUESTIONS section of your notes. Choose two of the remaining Depth & Complexity ICONS in your notes and explain how they relate to this section.

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