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 Sumerian clay tablets and the origin of writing.  Around this time, an ancient people in southern Mesopotamia called the Sumerians used a cuneiform.

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Presentation on theme: " Sumerian clay tablets and the origin of writing.  Around this time, an ancient people in southern Mesopotamia called the Sumerians used a cuneiform."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Sumerian clay tablets and the origin of writing.  Around this time, an ancient people in southern Mesopotamia called the Sumerians used a cuneiform alphabet, which symbols were pressed into clay with a triangular stylus. 

3  This is the date of the earliest surviving papyrus scroll with writing on it.  Papyrus scroll were made out of a grass-like, aquatic plant grown in the Nile delta region of Egypt.  Parts of the plant were cut into thin strips, pressed together and dried to form a writing surface the ancient Egyptians used for paper.  /in-word-wednesday-pick-up-pen-and- do-it.html

4  Writing systems developed.  Around this time, a general consensus among Mediterranean cultures slowly emerged, favoring left-to-right writing and reading.  Before that, there was left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom and back-to-front.  The Hebrews and some others kept right-to-left writing.  efreedictionary.com/Ide ographic+Writing

5  A Chinese eunuch names Cai Lun is credited with inventing paper making, using bark, hemp, old rags and used fish nets.  The process was improved and spread to the rest of the world.  china.com/chinaWH/html/en/Kal eidoscope3bye10.html

6  The earliest illuminated manuscripts were written on parchment, which by this time was replacing papyrus.  These handwriting books were decorated with gold and silver, striking colors and detailed designs.  Muslim countries also illustrated their manuscripts, but the process became highly developed in Europe.  us/what-are-illuminated- manuscripts.html

7  The first book is printed on paper in China.  The Chinese used a block of wood that had characters carved in reverse relief.  Ink was placed on the woodblock to create multiple copies on paper or parchment.  ml/chinese/early-books

8  The Chinese invent movable type, but it proved unsuccessful because of the numerous characters in the Chinese language.  European movable type, invented much later, was successful due to the limited characters in the languages.  m/chineseinvention/movtype.ht m

9  German inventor Johann Gutenberg completes his work on the first printing press, the key to the spread of the printed word in books.  org/2011/03/07/the-history-of- print-media/

10  Aldo Manuzio designs a smaller and less expensive book to replace the large codex.  This is the precursor to the modern paperback.  ess.com/category/15th- century/italian-printers/

11  Chlorine is discovered and will eventually bleach the paper used in books, the pages of which are moving more toward their modern appearance.  paces.com/Chlorine

12  The Charles Boni Paper books, a mail- order book club in the U.S., offers paper covers, influencing the start of book clubs and furthering paperback novels.  bookshopdoor/signature.cfm? item=82#1

13  The Internet is made available for commercial use.  Also, HTML code is written, allowing for the creation of the World Wide Web.  The advent of the Internet also contributed to the technological advancement of the book, creating many of it’s modern uses  y.edu/his1005spring2011/aut hor/jw096606/

14  The birth of Amazon Kindle, an automated reading device and a platform for displaying e-books or other text for user to read.  009/07/26/disruptive-leaders-jeff-bezos- and-the-kindle/


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