Presentation on theme: "Renaissance and Reformation This is not notes, but work for you!! #ugotsucka’d."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance and Reformation This is not notes, but work for you!! #ugotsucka’d
Vocabulary to define Hundred Years War Black Death Great Schism Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Humanists Niccolo Machiavelli Copernicus Johann Gutenburg Indulgences Martin Luther Ninety-five Theses John Calvin Counter- Reformation Council of Trent Elizabeth I Inquisition
Questions 1. What events contributed to the end of the middle Ages? 2. What was the Renaissance and why did it happen? 3. Would a Protestant Reformation have occurred without Martin Luther? Explain your answer.
Important Ideas 1. The Crusades, Black Death, Hundred Years’ War, and the Great Schism each contributed to the end of Medieval Europe. Explain why 2. The Renaissance occurred in Italy in the 15 th and 16 th centuries, and marked the rebirth of European culture. Explain why? 3. Renaissance humanists had a spirit of inquiry, and looked to classical Greece and Rome for inspiration. Painting and sculpture became more realistic, and literature and architecture borrowed classical style too. Renaissance notables included writer Petrarch, artists Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, and scientists Copernicus and Galileo.
4. Johann Gutenberg's invention of movable type made it easier to reproduce pamphlets and books, leading to the spread of new ideas. Why was this important? 5. The Great Schism, widespread corruption in the church, and Renaissance secularism weakened the power and authority of the Catholic Church. Explain 6. Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation when he posted 95 Theses criticizing the church’s sale of indulgences in 1517,challenging the authority of the Pope. The Reformation forever shattered the unity of the Catholic Church. How so?
7. Protestants believed in salvation by faith alone and encouraged lay people to read the Bible to interpret it for themselves. John Calvin argued in favor of predestination - that God decided who would go to heaven after death. How could this change Europe? 8. The Reformation led to more that a century of armed conflict between Catholics and Protestants. Why? 9. The Renaissance and Reformation strengthened the authority and power of secular rulers. Explain why
The End of Middle Ages The Great Famine (1313-1322)- Millions died and the church was questioned, prices went up 6X’s The Black Death (1347-1351)- 25 million died, creating a labor shortage, serfs freed to work The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)- development of standing armies, gunpowder introduced from China, Joan of Arc drove English out of Orleans, then captured and burned at the stake as a witch The Great Schism (1378-1417)-Kings wanted powers to appoint local bishops, French, Italian, and church officials all elected a pope causing a schism
Renaissance Begins “Rebirth”- period of great intellectual and artistic creativity Began in Italy (Genoa, Pisa, and Venice) due to increase trade People began to explain the world through observation not on traditional church teachings Humanists put emphasis on dignity, worth, and uniqueness of people Secularism- non religious view of world
Renaissance Artists Giotto- used figures in lifelike space Masaccio- used perspective showing objects receding in the distance Leonardo Da Vinci- used shadowing, blurred lines, also a great scientific mind Michelangelo- lifelike sculptures, Sistine Chapel (fresco) Filippo Brunelleschi- (architect) build Florence Cathedral Dome
VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Raphael (1483-1520) Man of great sensitivity and kindness Died at the age of 37 “ The School of Athens ” Famous for frescoes in the Vatican Palace
Intellectual Petrarch- “Father of Humanism” studied the ancient texts and analyzed them, some criticized the church such as Erasmus Wrote in vernacular (local) languages Ex.: Shakespeare (English), Rabelais (French), Cervantes (Spanish) Celebrated pleasure of the senses, dignity of man, instructed nobles how to behave at a prince’s court, etc.
Spread of Humanism William Shakespeare (1564- 1616) --Globe Theater Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and genres His history plays were the most popular at the time Macbeth : ambition Hamlet : individualism Keen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words
Political and Econ. Machiavelli- wrote The Prince a manual on how to gain and secure power “the end justifies the means” Wealth in the city states weakened the church as many paid taxes to the rulers and not the church People tried to improve their material wealth which increased trade
Science and Technology Copernicus- measurements concluded that the earth travels around the sun, and was banned by church since it opposed church doctrine Galileo Galilei- studied early physics, confirmed the Earth travels around the sun using a telescope, and was order before the Inquisition in Rome, found guilty and was confined to his home Gutenburg- 1450 developed movable printing press with metal reusable blocks, which allowed more books and more Europeans began to read spreading ideas
Protestant Reformation Indulgences needed to end and reforms were in order but the church would not listen Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses challenging the Pope’s right to sell indulgences Faith in God was the key to salvation, and each person must read and understand the Bible Luther was excommunicated, and deemed an outlaw for refusing to attend his trial He began the Lutheran Church, Translated the New Testament into German, and the reformers were known as Protestants
More Reform to Church John Calvin- started a Protestant church in Geneva and preached “predestination” Catholic Counter- Reformation- church made some reforms and defined catholic beliefs at the Council of Trent Catholic leaders also established the Inquisition which was a court destined to punish heretics Henry VIII- demanded a divorce so became Protestant 30 Years War- between Catholic and Protestant, 1/3 of Germans were killed (1618-1648)