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17.1 Birthplace Renaissance  Birthplace – Italy  Suffering leads to need for new/classical ideas  Questioned the church on why they had to suffer 

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Presentation on theme: "17.1 Birthplace Renaissance  Birthplace – Italy  Suffering leads to need for new/classical ideas  Questioned the church on why they had to suffer "— Presentation transcript:

1 17.1 Birthplace Renaissance  Birthplace – Italy  Suffering leads to need for new/classical ideas  Questioned the church on why they had to suffer  Medieval ideas blocked social advancement  Renaissance means “rebirth” Why Italy?

2 Bubonic Plague And Crusade Effects  How did the Crusades affect the Renaissance?  Trade caused cities to spring up around northern Italy  How did the Bubonic Plague affect the Renaissance movement?  Killed 60% of the population in the cities  With fewer laborers – demanded higher wages  Reduced population shrunk opportunities for business expansion  Wealthy merchants began to pursue other things like art

3 Medici Family  Because of the increased trade due to the Crusades, the merchant class was the wealthiest  Merchants did not inherit status – but felt they deserved it because of what they had accomplished on their own  Medici family wealthiest  Basically a dictator  Supported the arts  INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT = THEME

4 Classical Ideas and Humanism  They studied classical ideas: Greek and Roman  Classical ideas led to humanism  Human potential and achievement  Encouraged studies of history, literature, philosophy = humanities  Were secular – remained devout Catholics, but felt that people could enjoy life without offending God Popes and wealthy merchants became patrons

5 “Renaissance Man”  Was educated in many areas  Expected to create art Renaissance Women - know the classics - be charming - not seek fame - inspire art not create it

6 Renaissance Revolutionizes Art and Writing  Teenaged Mutant Ninja Turtles (But not really)  Machiavelli  The Prince

7 17. 2 Northern Renaissance  By 1400’s the spread of the Renaissance reached Northern Europe  Merchants carried the ideas north  100 Year’s War had ended  Population from the Bubonic Plague was recovering  Cities and wealth grew  Patrons began to sponsor artists and writers

8  France and England were under monarchs – unlike Italy  Rulers and wealthy merchants began to sponsor artists  France invites da Vinci to retire there Royal Courts - Played role in spread of Renaissance ideas - Every court wanted to be on the cutting edge

9 Renaissance Ideas of the North  Renaissance ideas mingled with northern traditions  Were more concerned with religious ideas than secular ideas of Italy  This caused a push for religious reform based on Christian values  HUMAN DIGNITY = Theme Students fleeing a French invasion of Italy carry ideas to Northern Europe

10 Christian Humanists  Erasmus  “The Praise of Folly”  Thomas Moore  “Utopia”  Shakespeare  Elizabethan Age

11 Gutenberg’s Printing Press  Presses paper against a tray full of linked movable type  Allowed hundreds of copies of the same page  Affordable for all  Spread ideas  Many books were in vernacular – so even those not classically educated could read them

12 Gutenberg’s Bible  Used his printing press to print the complete Bible  First full sized book printed with movable type  Bible eventually printed in vernacular  Allowed people to interpret the Bible for themselves and they became more critical of priests and their behavior  Leads to demands for religious reform

13 Renaissance Legacy  Democracy

14 17.3 The Reformation Starts  By the 10 th Century the Church had come to dominate life in Northern and Western Europe  The people began to resent the church and criticized the rule

15 Causes  Secular ideas  Rulers (political) wanted to challenge the pope  Northern merchants did not want to pay taxes to Rome  Many Problems in the church (corruption, scandal)

16 Early Calls for Reform  Wycliffe and Bohemia  Challenged Pope’s worldly power  Bible had more authority than the church  Savonarola  Preached reform (burn worldly goods)

17 Martin Luther  Protested Sales of Indulgences  95 Theses  Asked people to debate his claims  Luther became famous  Churches followed  The Reformation begins

18 Opposition to Luther  The Pope  Threated to excommunicate Luther  The Holy Roman Emperor  Threatened to imprison Luther  The Diet and Edict of Worms  Luther was not intimidated

19 England Becomes Protestant  Henry the 8 th wants a divorce  Pope says no  Henry Challenged  Mary (Henry’s Daughter) restores Catholicism  Elizabeth I takes over (deposing Mary) and restores Protestantism.

20 After Restoring England  Elizabeth faced an attack from Spain.  Elizabeth supported Protestant rebellion in Spain  Spain Lost  Elizabeth was a moderately successful ruler  Money was an issue

21 17.4 More Protestant Churches  Calvin and his teachings  “Institutes of the Christian Religion”  Predestination  Calvin Runs Geneva  Strict rules, dire consequences

22 Calvinism Spreads  John Knox visited Geneva and liked the Calvinist way of life.  Took it back to Scotland= Presbyterianism  Similar beliefs spread to Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers  Still exists today but softened

23 The Anabaptists  “Baptize again”  Protestants and Catholics felt threated by them so they were persecuted  Influenced the Amish, Quakers and Baptists

24 Women of the Reformation  They were known for influencing their reformer husbands and protecting them such as the case for John Calvin  Still discouraged from being leaders

25 The Catholic Reformation  Ignatius of Loyola  Jesuits  They founded schools throughout Europe  Trained in theology and classical studies  Went on missions  Attempted to stop the spread of Protestanism

26 Reforming Popes  Pope Paul III  Investigates Indulgences  Inquisition  Council of Trent  Pope Paul IV  Index of Forbidden Books

27 Legacy of the Reformation  Protestants flourished despite persecution  Religion no longer united Europe  Paved the way for modern Nation States  Helped set the stage for the modern world


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