2Objectives Demonstrate knowledge of the joints of body. Demonstrate knowledge of the movements of the body.Apply knowledge to analyze various types of strength- training exercises.
3Types of JointsJoints occur where 2 or more bones meet. Also called articulation. They are held together by ligaments.Joints are essential for movement.There are three main types of joints:Fibrous – immovable (skull)Cartilaginous – slightly movable (vertebrae)Synovial – freely movable (shoulder, elbow, knee, etc.)
4Synovial JointsFreely movable joints that permit movement in one or more directions5 common types of synovial joints:Ball and Socket jointsHinge jointsPivot jointsSaddle jointsGliding joints
5Ball and socket joints permit movement in many directions.
10Structure of Joints – Bursae and Synovial Fluids In synovial joints, there are small capsules of synovial fluids called bursae.A bursa acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction between bones of a joint.
12Joint DisordersExcessive strain on a joint may produce inflammation, in which excess fluid causes swelling, pain, heat, and redness.Inflammation of a bursa is called bursitis.Inflammation of the joint itself is called arthritis.
13Types of Movement Flexion – the angle of the joint is decreased. Extension – the angle of the joint is increased.Abduction – a body part is moved away from the middle of the body.Adduction – a body part is moved towards the middle of the body.Rotation – a body part is moved either outwards or inwards around its long axis.
14Types of MovementSupination – a rotation of the forearm which causes the palm of the hand to face upwards.Pronation – a rotation of the forearm which causes the palm of the hand to face downwards.Inversion – a rotation of the sole of the foot inwards.Eversion – a rotation of the sole of the foot outwards.