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Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Lab Week of February 18, 2008 Marieb & Mitchell: Exercise 15 Martini: Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Lab Week of February 18, 2008 Marieb & Mitchell: Exercise 15 Martini: Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Lab Week of February 18, 2008 Marieb & Mitchell: Exercise 15 Martini: Chapter 11

2 muscle –fascicles fibers fibers of a single fascicle always parallel fascicles of a muscle can be arranged in various ways Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

3 Muscles are classified by how the fascicles are organized 1.Parallel (e.g., biceps brachii muscle) most common arrangement 2.Convergent (e.g.,pectoralis muscle) fascicles fan or triangle shaped, converge to attach

4 Muscles are classified by how the fascicles are organized 3.Pennate (unipennate, bipennate and multipennate) fasicles form angle toward tendon 4.Circular (e.g.,orbicularis oris) sphincter, contracts to reduce diameter of opening

5 Origins and Insertions The ends of skeletal muscles are always attached to other structures –fixed end is called ORIGIN usually attached to bone or cartilage –movable end is called INSERTION usually proximal to insertion

6 How are muscles named? 1.location in the body e.g., temporalis muscle 2.Origin and Insertion first part = origin, 2 nd part = insertion 3.Fascicle Organization e.g., Rectus means “straight” e.g., transverse means “across” e.g., oblique means “oblique angle”

7 How are muscles named? 4.Relative Position e.g., superficialis, internus, lateralis, etc… 5.Structural Characteristics (shape and size) e.g., deltoid, rhomboid, major, longus, etc… 6.Action e.g., abductor, extensor, rotator, etc…

8 Muscular Actions Agonists (prime mover) –responsible for a particular movement Antagonist –against movement of agonist Synergists –aid agonists, stabilize an action Fixators –specialized synergists –immobilize the origin of agonist so all tension is exerted at the insertion point

9 Muscles of the Head and Neck Epicranius –frontalis action: raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead

10 Muscles of the Head and Neck Epicranius –occipitalis action: tenses and pulls scalp posteriorly

11 Muscles of the Head and Neck Orbicularis Oculi –action: closes eye, squinting

12 Muscles of the Head and Neck Orbicularis oris –action: constricts mouth (whistle, kissing)

13 Muscles of the Head and Neck Zygomaticus –action: the elevates corners of mouth and upper lip smiling muscle antagonist to depressor anguli oris

14 Muscles of the Head and Neck Levator Labii Superioris –action: raises upper lip, opens lips

15 Muscles of the Head and Neck Depressor Labii Inferioris –action: depresses lower lip

16 Muscles of the Head and Neck Depressor Anguli Oris –action: draws corners of mouth down frowning muslce antagonist to zygomaticus

17 Muscles of the Head and Neck Depressor Anguli Oris –action: draws corners of mouth down frowning muslce antagonist to zygomaticus

18 Muscles of the Head and Neck Masseter –origin: zygomatic arch –insertion: mandibular ramus –action: elevates mandible closes jaw

19 Muscles of the Head and Neck Temporalis –action: elevates mandible closes jaw

20 Muscles of the Head and Neck Sternocleidomastoid –origin: clavicle or manubrium –insertion: mastoid process –action: together: flex neck 1 side: bends head towards shoulder and turns face to opposite side

21 Muscles of the Head and Neck Scalenes –origin: cervical vertebrae –insertion: Ribs 1-2 –action: elevates ribs, flexes neck

22 Muscles of the Head and Neck Splenius Capitis –action: extend and hyperextend head

23 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Erector Spinae –iliocostalis –spinalis –longissimus together: extends vertebral column along: lateral flexion

24 Muscles of the Trunk and Back External Intercostals –origin: rib above –insertion: rib below –action: elevates ribs inspiration

25 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Internal Intercostals –origin: rib below –insertion: rib above –action: depresses ribs breath out

26 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Diaphragm –origin: xiphoid process, cartilage of ribs 4-10, lumbar vertebrae –action: expands thoracic cavity, compresses abdominopelvic cavity

27 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Transverse Abdominus –insertion: linea alba –action: compresses abdominopelvic cavity

28 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Internal Oblique –insertion: linea alba –action: compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine

29 Muscles of the Trunk and Back External Oblique –insertion: linea alba –action: compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine

30 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Rectus Abdominus –origin: pubic symphesis –insertion: xyphoid process –action: depresses ribs, compresses abdomen, flexes vertebral column

31 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Trapezius –origin: midline of neck and back –insertion: clavicles and scapular spines –action: elevation, depression, rotation, adduction of scapula, extension of head

32 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Rhomboid Major –origin: T2-T5 spinous processes –insertion: vertebral border of scapula –action: adduction of scapula

33 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Rhomboid Minor –origin: C7 and T1 spinous process –insertion: vertebral border of scapula –action: adduction of scapula

34 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Levator Scapulae –origin: C1-4 transverse process –insertion: vertebral border of scapula –action: elevates scapula

35 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Pectoralis Minor –origin: anterior surface of ribs 3-5 –insertion: coracoid process of scapula –action: depresses and contracts scapular end of clavicle (in complement with subclavius muscle)

36 Muscles of the Trunk and Back Serratus Anterior –origin: ribs –insertion: scapula –action: abducts scapula, swings shoulder anteriorly

37 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Lab Week of February 25, 2008 Marieb & Mitchell: Exercise 15 Martini: Chapter 11 MUSCLES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES

38 Pectoralis Major Origin –Cartilages of ribs 2-6, body of sternum, inferior medial clavicle Insertion –Humerus (greater tubercle and lip of intertubercular groove) Action –Flex, adduct, medially rotate shoulder joint

39 Latissimus Dorsi Origin –T6-12, lumbar, sacrum, ileum Insertion –Humerus (floor of intertubercular groove) Action –Adduction, extension, medial rotation at the shoulder joint

40 Coracobrachialis Origin –Coracoid process of scapula Insertion –Humerus (shaft) Action –Adduct, flex at shoulder joint

41 Supraspinatus Origin –Supraspinous fossa of scapula Insertion –Humerus (greater tubercle) Action –Abduction at shoulder joint, stabilizes joint Rotator cuff group

42 Infraspinatus Origin –Infraspinous fossa of scapula Insertion –Humerus (greater tubercle) Action –Lateral rotation at shoulder joint Rotator cuff group

43 Teres Minor Origin –Lateral border of scapula Insertion –Humerus (greater tubercle) Action –Lateral rotation at shoulder joint, stabilizes Rotator cuff group

44 Subscapularis Origin –Subscapular fossa of scapula Insertion –Humerus (lesser tubercle) Action –Medial rotation at shoulder joint Rotator Cuff Group

45 Teres Major Origin –Inferior angle of scapula Insertion –Humerus (lip of intertubercular groove) Action –Extension, adduction, medial rotation at shoulder joint

46 Deltoid Origin –Clavicle, scapula (spine and acromion) Insertion –Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action –Altogether  Abduction at shoulder joint –Anterior  flexion, medial rotation at shoulder –Posterior  extension, lateral rotation at shoulder

47 Biceps Brachii Origins –Long head Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula –Short head Coracoid process of scapula Insertion –Tuberosity of radius Action –Flex at elbow AND shoulder joint, supination

48 Brachialis Origin –Humerus Insertion –Ulna Action –Flexes forearm (elbow joint)

49 Triceps Brachii Origin –Long: Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula –Lateral: humerus –Medial: humerus Insertion –Olecranon of Ulna (for all 3) Action –Long: extension elbow joint, extension and adduction at shoulder joint –Lateral and Medial: extension at elbow joint

50 Brachioradialis Origin –Distal humerus Insertion –radius Action –Flexion at elbow joint

51 Pronator Teres Action –Pronation (forearm)

52 Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Action –Flex, adduct wrist

53 Flexor Carpi Radialis Action –Flex, abduct wrist

54 Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Action –Flexion at proximal interphalangeal –Flexion at metacarpophalangeal –Flexion at wrist

55 Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Action –Extend, abduct wrist

56 Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Action –Extend, abduct wrist

57 Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Action –Extend, adduct wrist

58 Extensor Digitorum Action –Extension at finger joints and wrist joints

59 Adam Packet 1: muscles of the head, neck, chest and back Using the Adam software, identify the muscles in the packet (pgs 8-16). Answer questions 1-15 on a SEPARATE piece of notebook paper and turn it in by NEXT LAB PERIOD. NOTE: –You will find the answers in Exercise 15 of Marieb and Chapter 11 of Martini.


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