Presentation on theme: "How did the Mongol conquest affect trade and culture in Eurasia?"— Presentation transcript:
1How did the Mongol conquest affect trade and culture in Eurasia? Warm Up:How did the Mongol conquest affect trade and culture in Eurasia?
2III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Russia and Rule from AfarMongol Rule in RussiaAfter the defeat of the Kievan Rus,the Mongols of the Golden Horde made their capital at the mouth of the Volga,- which was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia.the Mongols ruled Russia “from afar,”- leaving the Orthodox Church in place- and using the Russian princes as their agents.the main goal of the Golden Horde was to extract as much tax revenue as possible from their subjects.
3III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Rise of MoscowPrince Alexander of Novgorod had assisted the Mongols in their conquest of Russia,As a result, the Mongols favored Novgorod and Moscow (ruled by Prince Alexander’s brother).Mongol conquest led to devastation of the Ukrainian countrysidecaused the Russian population to shift from Kiev toward Novgorod and Moscow,Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian civilization.
4III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Effects of Mongol DominationHistorians Debate:Negative effect on Russia,bringing economic depression and cultural isolationThe Kievan state was already declining when the Mongols came,- over-taxation of Russians under Mongol rule was the work of the Russian princes,- Russia was isolated by the Orthodox church,- the structure of Russian government did not change drastically under Mongol rule.
5III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia End of Mongol Rule in RussiaIvan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of tsar.
6III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia New States in Eastern Europe and AnatoliaEurope DividedEurope was dividedthe political forces of the papacy and those of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II ( ).As a result,Eastern Europe—particularly Hungary and Poland—faced the Mongol attacks alone.
7III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Teutonic KnightsGerman speaking Christian order of knights“Northern Crusade”Goal was to Christianize the Slavic population of Northern EuropeDefeated by Mongols and Alexander Nevskii in 1242
8III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Mongol Conquest in EuropeThe Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an international forceincluding Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and Europeansled by Mongol generals.“Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking fear into the hearts of the Europeansthe Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the Mongol princes could return to Mongolia- elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan Ogodei.
9III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Cultural ExchangeDespite widespread fear of Mongol invasions, Europeans did learn from their contact with the Mongols- Diplomatic passports, coal mining, movable type, advanced metallurgy, mathematics, gunpowder, and canons
11Read: Journey to the Land of the Tartars The Human Record, pagesHow does William of Rubruck characterize the Mongol lifestyle?Describe the Mongol diet. Analyze why the Mongols eat what and how they do?How does William of Rubruck characterize the status of Mongol women?Based on this evidence, do you think that Rubruck had a positive or negative attitude toward to Mongols? Be specific in supporting your conclusion.
12III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia LithuaniaMaintained independence by cooperating with MongolsPeriod of political centralization and military strengtheningDominated neighbors, Poland and the Teutonic Knights
13III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia The BalkansIndependent well organized Kingdoms arose in uncertainty of Mongol chaos and Byzantine collapseSerbiaArchbishop became an independent patriarchKing Stephan Dushan ( ) crowned “Tsar of the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians”Kingdom disappeared after defeat by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389
14III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 7. The Ottoman EmpireEstablished a state in AnatoliaTook advantage of declining power of Mongols and the ByzantinesCaptured Constantinople in 1453.
15IV. Mongol Domination in China The Yuan Empire ( )Conquest ( )Mongols conquered the Jin, Tanggut and Southern Song DynastiesIn 1271, Khublia Khan declared himself emperor of a unified China- Yuan Dynasty
16Read: Description of the World The Human Record: PagesAnswer questions #1-4
17Warm Up:What impact did the Mongols have on trade along the Silk Road?
19IV. Mongol Domination in China Mongol adapt Chinese PracticesKubilai Khan gave his oldest son a Chinese nameConfucian scholars participated in education of the Khan’s childrenBuddhist and Daoist leaders invited to court
20IV. Mongol Domination in China BejingYuan Dynasty capital cityTerminus (end) of silk RoadCreated closed Imperial complex- The “Forbidden City”More Chinese than Mongolian
22IV. Mongol Domination in China UnificationMongols unified China- Had been divided among Tangutt, Jin and Southern Song EmpiresEach had different languages, writing systems, forms of government and cultureThe Mongols encouraged traditional Chinese government and culturePermanent reunification of China
23IV. Mongol Domination in China 5. Social RankingLegally defined based of race and function1) Mongols- Warriors2) Central Asians and Middle Easterners- Census takers and tax collectors3) Northern Chinese4) Southern Chinese
24IV. Mongol Domination in China 6. Mongol GovernmentChina divided into provinces- Government officials centrally appointedTax farmingUse of Western Asian officialsCensusTax collectingConfucianism weakenedStatus of merchants and doctors elevated
25IV. Mongol Domination in China 7. Trade and communicationHorse based courier system maintained close communication within empireRoads were policed and safeChina reconnected to the Silk Roadcities and ports prosperedtrade recoveredmerchants flourished
26IV. Mongol Domination in China 8. Urban Lifeflourishing mercantile economy led the Chinese gentry elite to move into the citieswhere a lively urban culture of popular entertainment,vernacular literature,and the Mandarin dialect of Chinese developed
27IV. Mongol Domination in China 9. Rural Lifecotton growing, spinning, and weaving were introduced to mainland China from Hainan IslandMongols encouraged the construction of irrigation systemsfarmers in the Yuan were overtaxed and brutalized while dams and dikes were neglected
28What were some of the effects of Mongol rule on China? Warm Up:What were some of the effects of Mongol rule on China?
30IV. Mongol Domination in China 10. Effects of Mongol RuleYuan period China’s population declined by perhaps as much as 40 percent,with northern China seeing the greatest loss of population,while the Yangzi Valley actually saw a significant increase.Possible reasons for this pattern include:warfare, the flooding of the Yellow River, north-south migration, and the spread of diseases, including the bubonic plague in the 1300s.
31IV. Mongol Domination in China B. Scientific and Cultural Exchange1. Exchange of GoodsBetween Yuan China and Il-khan IranChina sent silks and porcelain westMuslims oversaw engineering projects and weapons manufacturing of Yuan armies
32IV. Mongol Domination in China Exchange of IdeasChinese ideas and technology- Astronomy, herbal medicineIranian ideas and technology- Observatory, doctors and medical text
33IV. Mongol Domination in China Fall of the Yuan EmpireCollapseInfighting among Mongol princesFarmer rebellionsZhu Yuanzhang led a military campaign that destroyed the Yuan EmpireFounded the Ming dynasty
34IV. Mongol Domination in China LegacyCultural diversityMongols, Muslims Jews and Christians remained in ChinaMongols returned to MongoliaSense of Mongol unity
35V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, ( )1. Mongol DominationKorea’s leaders initially resisted the Mongol invasionsgave up in 1258 when the king of Koryo surrendered and joined his family to the Mongols by marriage.The Koryo kings then fell under the influence of the Mongols,Korea profited from exchange with the Yuan in which new technologies:including cotton, gunpowder, astronomy, calendar making, and celestial clocks were introduced.
36V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Koryo Collapseshortly after the fall of the Yuanreplaced by the Yi dynasty.the Yi reestablished local identityrestored the status of Confucian scholarship while maintaining Mongol administrative practices and institutions.
37V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 3. Yi dynastyTechnological innovations of the Yi period include:the use of moveable type in copper frames, meteorological science, a local calendar, the use of fertilizer, and the engineering of reservoirs.The growing of cash crops, particularly cotton, became common during the Yi period.
38V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Military TechnologyThe Koreans were innovators in military technology.Among their innovations were:patrol ships with cannon mounted on them, gunpowder arrow-launchers, and armored ships.
39V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Political Transformation in JapanAttempted Mongol ConquestThe first (unsuccessful) Mongol invasion of Japan in 1274 made the decentralized local lords of Kamakura Japan develop a greater sense of unitythe shogun took steps to centralize planning and preparation for the expected second assault.The second Mongol invasion (1281) was defeated by a combination of Japanese defensive preparations and a typhoon- Kamikaze – Divine Wind .The Kamakura regime continued to prepare for further invasions.As a result:- the warrior elite consolidated their position in Japanese society,- trade and communication within Japan increased,- but the Kamakura government found its resources strained by the expense of defense preparations.
40V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Collapse of the Kamakura ShogunateThe Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil warthe Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1338.The Ashikaga period was characterized by a relatively weak shogunal state and strong provincial lordswho sponsored the development of markets, religious institutions, schools, increased agricultural production, and artistic creativity.
41V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Decentralization in JapanAfter the Onin war of 1477,the shogunate exercised no powerthe provinces were controlled by independent regional lords who fought with each other.The regional lords also carried out trade with continental Asia.
42V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 The Emergence of VietnamPolitical DivisionVietnam was divided between two states:the Chinese-influenced Annam in the norththe Indian-influenced Champa in the south.The Mongols extracted tribute from both states, but with the fall of the Yuan Empire, they began to fight with each other.
43. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Independence and UnificationThe Ming Dynasty ruled Annam through a puppet government for almost thirty years in the early fifteenth centuryuntil the Annamese threw off Ming control in 1428.By 1500 Annam had completely conquered Champaestablished a Chinese-style government over all of Vietnam.