What is Posturography? Force Platforms Stabilographic analysis Computerized Dynamic Posturography Sensory Organization Test (SOT) Motor control Test (MCT) Adaptation Test (ADT)
Posturography - A term covering all of the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance, in either static or dynamic conditions. Static Posturography (stabilometry) - Places the subject in a standing posture on a force plate connected to force and movement transducers, which are able to detect the tiny oscillations of the body. Dynamic Posturography (CDP) – Disturbs the subject’s posture by means of a special apparatus with a movable platform.
Measure the ground reaction forces generated by a body standing on or moving across the platform. Used to quantify balance, gait, and other parameters of biomechanics. Forces in three perpendicular directions are usually plotted against time Vertical (Fz) Horizontal –antero-posterior (Fy) Lateral –medio-lateral (Fx)
Postural Sway – A measure of the movement of the center of gravity within the base of support. Postural Stability – Measured on the basis of the horizontal difference in sway motion between center of gravity and center of pressure.
Measures stability of stance or postural equilibrium. Highlights poor posture, instability and asymmetry. Variables that can be altered Base of support (feet together/separated, standing on one foot, etc) Surface (hard or foam) Vision (opened v. closed)
Most common method of measuring postural sway. Is balance getting better or worse? Three types of tests: Sensory Organization Test (SOT) Motor Control Test (MCT) Adaptation Test (ADT)
Identifies problems with the patient's ability to effectively use visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information. Sensory information is eliminated through calibrated "sway referencing" of the support surface and/or visual surround. Patients may display an inability to make effective use of individual sensory systems.
Assesses the patient's ability to modify motor reactions and minimize sway when the support moves unpredictably in the toes-up or toes-down direction. This adaptive test simulates daily life conditions such as irregular support surfaces.
Static v. Dynamic Posturography Relationship of Newton’s laws to force plate analyses How to differentiate between the various tests What the individual tests are used to determine
References : Allum, J.H., Shepard, N.T., (1999). An overview of the clinical use of dynamic posturography in the differential diagnosis of balance disorders. Journal of Vestibular Research, 9, 223-252. Jones, R., (2008). The relationship between postural stability and virtual environment adaptation. Neuroscience Letters, 435(3), 204-209. Parker, K., (2001). Use of force platforms in physics and sport. Physics Education, 36, 18-22. Riley, M.A., Clark, S., (2003), Recurrence analysis of human postural sway during the sensory organization test. Neuroscience letters, 342, 45-48. http://resourcesonbalance.com/neurocom/protocols/motorI mpairment/index.aspx