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ASIAN CULTURES UNIT 350 BCE – 1400 CE. 350 BCE – 600 CE Defense Trade Advances China and India.

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Presentation on theme: "ASIAN CULTURES UNIT 350 BCE – 1400 CE. 350 BCE – 600 CE Defense Trade Advances China and India."— Presentation transcript:


2 350 BCE – 600 CE Defense Trade Advances China and India

3 550 – 1400 Technological Advances The Mongols Status of Women in Asian Cultures East Asia

4 Americas: Government, Achievements, Religion Africa: Adaption to Environment, Trade & Blending of cultures Comparisons to Americas & Africa

5 350 BCE – 600 CE China & India

6 First Chinese Empire 2221 BCE: Qin became the first unified Chinese empire LLEGALISM: political philosophy taught efficient government key to maintaining order and control QQin Reforms TTo strengthen security, workers joined separate defensive walls in Northern China GGREAT WALL OF CHINA hundreds of thousands of peasants toiled and many died

7 Trade & Buddhism CChina’s most prized possession is: SILK RRevealing the secret of its making was punishable by death MMerchants traveling between China and Central Asia used a series of overland routes SSILK ROADS: network of routes stretched from China to Mediterranean LLinked China to India, Middle East, and Roman Empire BBrought Buddhism to China BBrought more hope to Chinese than Confucianism or Daoism

8 Chinese Advances PPaper – made by grinding plant fibers, like hemp, into a paste and left to dry ““books” created by connecting several sheets to create scroll IIron plow and wheelbarrow SSeismograph – measured earthquakes AACUPUNCTURE: inserting fine needles into skin at specific points to cure disease and relieve pain

9 Indian Advances HHindu-Arabic Numerals: first to use the symbol for 0 WWithout which modern math would not be possible NNumerals we use today EEarth revolves around the sun CCircumference of the earth AAccurate to 1%

10 View map on pages 242-243  Compare insets on Roman and Han conflicts with Nomads  What effects did nomads have on the Roman empire?  The Chinese empire?  What was the most extensive empire between 100-400 CE?  Which group of nomads traveled the farthest?

11 550-1400 East Asia

12 China – Inventions & Innovations PPorcelain – ceramic known as “china” SSought after around the world WWoodblock Printing AA page of text is carved into a block of wood WWood is coated with ink PPressed to paper MMovable Type – individual letters or characters carved RRearranged and reused THE DRAGON IS THE IMPERIAL SIGN OF CHINA

13 China – Inventions & Innovations PPaper Money FFacilitated Trade TTrade expanded along improved roads and canals SSilk Roads – routes connected china to markets in Central Asia, India and beyond! SShip Building advances led to sailing around Asia

14 Status of Women FFoot Binding: FFeet tightly wrapped with pieces of cloth RRestricted growth of feet so they appeared small and dainty EExtremely painful OOver time bones deformed AAlso limited movement

15 The Mongol Empire SSTEPPES: grasslands, stretch across north-central Eurasia HHome to nomadic people TToo dry for farming LLived as pastoralists, relying on herds TTraded for items they lacked OOr, swept through and took what they wanted

16 Mongols SSheep and Goat herders SSkilled with horses DDivided into clans EEach clan led by a KHAN: CHIEF 11206: Genghis Kahn “Universal Leader” conquered rival Mongol clans and became leader of all Mongols

17 Genghis Khan BBuilt an Empire! BBuilt a powerful military machine EEnforced strict discipline DDemanded complete loyalty HHighly mobile, struck quickly MMilitary leader SSurrounded and trapped enemy BBrutality PPsychological warfare BBurned any town that resisted SSent agents ahead to build fear of approaching forces

18 Mongol Empire OOver 20 years, Mongols conquered much of Asia LLearned the art of siege warfare and gunpowder 11227: at his death, Genghis Khan controlled much of China and Central Asia MMongols divided his empire into KKhanates: regions HHeirs ruled each region PPAX MONGOLIA: Mongols ruled peacefully, tolerated local beliefs, allowed local rulers to stay in power, created stability

19 Japan AArchipelago: large island chain JJapan is the length of the eastern coast of the US VVolcanic EEarly Japan SSHINTO: everything in nature, sun, rocks, trees, animals has a spirit (kami) NNo sacred text or structure BBuild shrines to kami and perform ceremonies for blessings SShrines located in natural settings dedicated to unusual trees, waterfalls, etc RRed Gateway marks the entrance to a shrine

20 Government Achievements Religion Similarities with the Americas

21 Government CCity-States throughout Mesoamerica (Mexico) formed alliances AAztecs (1100s) required conquered people to pay tribute – tax IInca (Peru) put governors throughout their conquered empire

22 Achievements MMaya and Aztecs kept written records IIncans kept tax records, census, livestock records on QQUIPU: knotted, colored cords AAztecs created a 365 day calendar AAccurate calculations of the movements of the planets

23 Trade & Architecture IInca Roads: paved with stone blocks, 14,000 miles, crossed every terrain imaginable (sea level to 12,000 miles high) FFirst known suspension bridges crossed canyons and rivers MMachu Pichu: as advanced as Rome

24 Religion IInca kept mummies of dead kings and worshipped them CCreated temples to worship PPolytheistic CCeremonies led by priests In 1999, Archaeologists found 3 preserved bodies of Inca who were sacrificed to the gods in the mountains, and preserved thanks to the dry cold.

25 Adaption to Environment Trade & Blending of cultures Similarities with Africa

26 Environment LLarge size (3xs the USA) has a wide variety of climates and vegetation LLow, wide plains run across Northern and Western interior: SAHARA DESERT: LARGEST DESERT IN THE WORLD EEast is the Great Rift Valley, Rivers: Congo, Zambezi, Niger, Nile OOuter parts have several mountain ranges CCoastal areas are fertile farmlands, deserts, swamps, sandy beaches

27 Agriculture & Trade HHunter-Gatherers, to Pastoralists, to farmers AAs farming developed, people needed more land and spread out WWomen farmed, men raised cattle IIslam spread to Africa through trade IIron, gold, cattle, salt, TTrade led to blending of African, Arab, and Asian cultures SSWAHILI: AFRICAN-ARAB LANGUAGE & CULTURE

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